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Hosni Mubarak

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‘Our cameras are our weapons. They are the reason the revolution will succeed.’

New documentary film The Square centers on Cairo’s Tahrir Square and follows the ‘thorny path to democracy [that] only began with Hosni Mubarak’s fall.’ It also just won the Tim Hetherington Award at the Sheffield Doc/Fest.

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image-493101-galleryV9-nioy.jpgThe raw image, before PhotoShop enhancement. © Yuri Kozyrev / Noor.

image-493102-galleryV9-lnlv.jpgThe enhanced image, as distributed in the media. © Yuri Kozyrev / Noor.

According to a critical article in Spiegel Online: "Light conditions were not the best on Tahrir Square in Cairo during the celebration of autocrat Hosni Mubarak's resignation in 2011. Such shortcomings, however, can easily be compensated for using Photoshop. 'There is much more competition among photos today,' says Klaus Honnef, a professor of the theory of photography. '(Agencies) have to outdo each other.'"

Such digital enhancement is at the center of a growing debate over how much is too much when reporting the news. Is one version less "authentic" than the other?

Read the full story, and see many other "before-and-after" examples in Spiegel Online.

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A huge, colorful mural of the men Egyptian youth activists know as “felool”—regime remnants—adorns a building’s wall on Mohamed Mahmoud Street in downtown Cairo. Branching off of the now iconic Tahrir Square, Mohamed Mahmoud leads to the dreaded Interior Ministry. A number of bloody clashes between protesters and Egyptian security forces have taken place here in the year and a half since a popular uprising ended the 30-year dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak and launched the Arab world’s largest country into a tumultuous transition. To Egypt’s budding generation of revolutionary street artists, these walls are prime real estate for political expression.

Omar Fathi, the 26-year-old art student, who painted the mural with a set of cheap plastic paints last February, conceived of the idea after a deadly soccer riot had led to another series of clashes between police and protesters, leaving more than 80 people dead. Like much of his art, it was an image borne of frustration. Many of the youth protesters had blamed the ruling military and the police forces under its command for the deadly soccer riot and the ensuing violence as anger spread to the streets. To Fathi, it was further evidence of the state’s failure to govern and protect—something he had grown accustomed to under Mubarak, but that he and other youth activists and members of his “Revolution Artists’ Union” say has only continued under military rule. “Basically it represents the situation we are in, nothing has changed since the fall of the regime,” he says. “It’s the same leadership—the face has changed, but the rest is still the same.”

The mural depicts a split face—on the right, the scowling visage of ousted President Hosni Mubarak; and on the left, the man he once appointed to run his military, Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi. As the head of Egypt’s powerful military council, Tantawi has been Egypt’s de facto ruler since Mubarak stepped down in February 2011.

Shortly after Fathi painted his masterpiece, someone—he suspects from the military —painted over it. To spite them, he painted it again. When it was painted over a second time, he re-painted it a third, this time adding the faces of two presidential candidates, Amr Moussa, and Ahmed Shafik. Both men had served in Mubarak’s regime. And the run-off to the presidential election this month pit Ahmed Shafik against a candidate from the once-banned Muslim Brotherhood, in a tense face-off that some activists characterized as a battle between the old order and the new; the military regime versus the revolution. In the end, the Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsy won. But Tantawi and his military council have ensured that Morsy only wields certain presidential powers; the military controls the rest. And Fathi says he’ll keep painting. “Our contribution [to the revolution] is to portray the demands of the revolution through art. This has been our role since the eighteen days [of the uprising],” he says. “We serve the revolution through art, and we will keep illustrating our demands.”

Sharaf al-Hourani is a news assistant for TIME Magazine in Cairo
.

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Egypt recently carried out its first democratic presidential election in the country’s history. But five days after the vote, the question of who won remains a matter of contention. The contest pitted a former military man who had served in the regime of ousted president Hosni Mubarak against a leader of the regime’s longtime foes, the Muslim Brotherhood.

Most observers believe the most votes went to Mohamed Morsy, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP). The party claims a 1.2 million vote lead over Ahmed Shafik, the former military man and Mubarak prime minister. Shafik, however, says he has 500,000 more votes than Morsy. And with the official results still pending, the tension is rising as Egyptians wait to find out which candidate—if any—is telling the truth.

The presence of Egypt’s decidedly undemocratic military in its fledgling democratic process has only added to the atmosphere of uncertainty. Shortly after the polls closed on Sunday night, the junta, which has ruled Egypt since Mubarak stepped down, issued a decree that served to dramatically limit the powers of the incoming president. Just a few days before, the country’s constitutional court had moved to dissolve Egypt’s first democratically elected parliament—which had been dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood. And analysts say this latest decree seems tailor made to limit the impact of a Brotherhood win at the polls.

The Islamists have reacted to the pressure with a show of popular force; taking to Cairo’s Tahrir Square every night since, as the country awaits the electoral outcome. So far, the demonstrations have been largely symbolic. But they could turn violent if Shafik is declared the winner—an outcome that the Islamists have already said would be the product of electoral fraud.

Abigail Hauslohner is TIME’s Cairo correspondent.

Yuri Kozyrev is a contract photographer for TIME and was named the 2011 Photographer of the Year in the Pictures of the Year International competition.

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Gone are the accolades of heroism and courage that just one year ago greeted Egypt’s so-called “Facebook youth” when they led the popular uprising against the authoritarian regime of President Hosni Mubarak. Of that emotional and miraculous 18-day revolt, many proud Egyptians say the youth succeeded where decades of repressed and compromised opposition parties had not.

But 12 months later, Tahrir Square is a ravaged and frustrated version of its former self. Egypt’s youth movement is struggling to keep the revolution going, challenging the ruling military council the only way they know how—through protest. But with the country’s economy and stability sliding further into turmoil, the youth heroes of yesterday are failing to win the hearts and minds of the Egyptian majority today. Instead, many say they’re desperate to move on from the square.

Abigail Hauslohner is TIME’s Cairo correspondent. Find her on Twitter @ahauslohner.

Dominic Nahr is a contract photographer for TIME, represented by Magnum Photos. You can see more of his work from the Egyptian revolution here

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CARNIVAL QUEEN
CARNIVAL QUEEN: Carmen Gil, wearing a costume called ‘Imperio,’ by designer Santi Castro, celebrated as she was crowned Carnival queen on the Spanish Canary Island of Tenerife Wednesday. (Santiago Ferrero/Reuters)

FACEDOWN
FACEDOWN: Police arrested a man outside a hotel as British Prime Minister David Cameron gave a speech in Edinburgh Thursday. Mr. Cameron hinted at transferring more powers to Scotland, but he also argued in favor of maintaining Scotland’s union with the United Kingdom. (Jeff J. Mitchell/Getty Images)

REMEMBERING WHITNEY
REMEMBERING WHITNEY: A fan scribbled a message in memory of Whitney Houston at a shopping mall in Quezon City, Philippines, Thursday. The singer’s funeral will be held Saturday in Newark, N.J. (Rolex Dela Pena/European Pressphoto Agency)

KISSING MUBARAK
KISSING MUBARAK: A supporter of ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak kissed his picture during a rally outside a police academy in Cairo Thursday. The trial continues for Mr. Mubarak, who is accused of ordering the killing of demonstrators during an uprising. (Carsten Koall/Getty Images)

SCARRED
SCARRED: Sudanese man Mutasim Qamrawi, 22 years old, showed scars—from the four months he says he was held captive by smugglers in Egypt’s Sinai Desert—at a shelter in Tel Aviv Thursday. Thousands of Africans have entered Israel in recent years, fleeing conflicts and poverty. (Oded Balilty/Associated Press)

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Egyptian police have fired tear gas at thousands of demonstrators outside the Interior Ministry protesting the security forces’ failure to prevent a soccer riot that killed more than 70 people. Nearly 10,000 protesters, including sports fans, rallied Thursday demanding retribution for the bloody violence, which most blamed on police inaction. The protesters pushed their way [...]

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A massive demonstration of Egyptians gathered in Tahrir Square in Cairo today to mark the anniversary of the uprising that eventually led to the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak. Political divides are still in force with liberals and Islamists differing on their visions for the future of the country. Mubarak is now on trial for complicity in the deaths of protesters. The uprising in Egypt last year was one of the initial protests of what is called the Arab Spring, which has included the slaying of Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy and the ongoing protests in Syria. -- Lloyd Young (31 photos total)
Egyptians gather in their thousands in Tahrir Square to mark the one year anniversary of the revolution on Jan. 25, 2012 in Cairo Egypt. Tens of thousands have gathered in the square on the first anniversary of the Arab uprising which toppled President Hosni Mubarak. (Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images)

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The best photos of 2011 from around the globe. Warning: All images in this entry are shown in full, not screened out for graphic content. Some images contain dead bodies, graphic content and tragic events. We consider these images an important part of human history.

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