At CODE2012 I presented a paper on "programmable matter" and the proto-computational work of Ralf Baecker and Martin Howse - part of a long-running project on digital materiality. My sources included interviews with the artists, which I will be publishing here. Ralf Baecker's 2009 *The Conversation* is a complex physical network, woven from solenoids - electro-mechanical "bits" or binary switches. It was one of the works that started me thinking about this notion of the proto-computational - where artists seem to be stripping digital computing down to its raw materials, only to rebuild it as something weirder. *Irrational Computing *(2012) - which crafts a "computer" more like a modular synth made from crystals and wires - takes this approach further. Here Baecker begins by responding to this notion of proto-computing.

MW: *In your work, especially Irrational Computing, we seem to see some of the primal, material elements of digital computing. But this "proto" computing is also quite unfamiliar - it is chaotic, complex and emergent, we can't control or "program" it, and it is hard to identify familiar elements such as memory vs processor. So it seems that your work is not only deconstructing computing - revealing its components - but also reconstructing it in a strange new form. Would you agree?*

RB: It took me a long time to adopt the term "proto-computing". I don't mean proto in a historical or chronological sense; it is more about its state of development. I imagine a device that refers to the raw material dimension of our everyday digital machinery. Something that suddenly appears due to the interaction of matter. What I had in mind was for instance the natural nuclear fission reactor in Oklo, Gabon that was discovered in 1972. A conglomerate of minerals in a rock formation formed the conditions for a functioning nuclear reactor, all by chance.

Computation is a cultural and not a natural phenomenon; it includes several hundred years of knowledge and cultural technics, these days all compressed into a microscopic form (the CPU). In the 18th century the mechanical tradition of automata and symbolic/mathematical thinking merged into the first calculating and astronomical devices. Also the combinatoric/hermeneutic tradition (e.g. Athanasius Kircher and Ramon Llull) is very influential to me. These automatons/concepts were philosophical and epistemological. They were dialogic devices that let us think further, much against our current utilitarian use of technology. Generative utopia.

Schematic of *Irrational Computing* courtesy of the artist - click for PDF

MW: *Your work stages a fusion of sound, light and material. In Irrational Computing for example we both see and hear the activity of the crystals in the SiC module. Similarly in The Conversation, the solenoids act as both mechanical / symbolic components and sound generators. So there is a strong sense of the unity of the audible and the visual - their shared material origins. (This is unlike conventional audiovisual media for example where the relation between sound and image is highly constructed). It seems that there is a sense of a kind of material continuum or spectrum here, binding electricity, light, sound, and matter together?*

RB: My first contact with art or media art came through net art, software art and generative art. I was totally fascinated by it. I started programming generative systems for installations and audiovisual performances. I like a lot of the early screen based computer graphics/animation stuff. The pure reduction to wireframes, simple geometric shapes. I had the feeling that in this case concept and representation almost touch each other. But I got lost working with universial machines (Turing machines). With *Rechnender Raum* I started to do some kind of subjective reappropriation of the digital. So I started to build my very own non-universal devices. *Rechnender Raum *could also be read as a kinetic interpretation of a cellular automaton algorithm. Even if the Turing machine is a theoretical machine it feels very plastic to me. It a metaphorical machine that shows the conceptual relation of space and time. Computers are basically transposers between space and time, even without seeing the actual outcome of a simulation. I like to expose the hidden structures. They are more appealing to me than the image on the screen.

MW: *There is a theme of complex but insular networks in your work. In The Conversation this is very clear - a network of internal relationships, seeking a dynamic equilibrium. Similarly in Irrational Computing, modules like the phase locked loop have this insular complexity. Can you discuss this a little bit? This tendency reminds me of notions of self-referentiality, for example in the writing of Hofstadter, where recursion and self-reference are both logical paradoxes (as in Godel's theorem) and key attributes of consciousness. Your introverted networks have a strong generative character - where complex dynamics emerge from a tightly constrained set of elements and relationships.*

RB: Sure, I'm fascinated by this kind of emergent processes, and how they appear on different scales. But I find it always difficult to use the attribute consciousness. I think these kind of chaotic attractors have a beauty on their own. Regardless how closed these systems look, they are always influenced by its environment. The perfect example for me is the flame of a candle. A very dynamic complex process communicating with its environment, that generates the dynamics.

MW: *You describe The Conversation as "pataphysical", and mention the "mystic" and "magic" aspects of Irrational Computing. Can you say some more about this a aspect of your work? Is there a sort of romantic or poetic idea here, about what is beyond the rational, or is this about a more systematic alternative to how we understand the world?*

RB: Yes, it refers to an other kind of thinking. A thinking that is anti "cause and reaction". A thinking of hidden relations, connections and uncertainty. I like Claude Lévi-Strauss' term "The Savage Mind".

- Alan Turing
- animation
- artist
- astronomical devices
- Athanasius Kircher
- British people
- Calculating Space
- cellular automaton algorithm
- cellular automaton algorithm
- Claude Lévi-Strauss
- computation
- Computer
- Computer music
- computing
- conventional audiovisual media
- dialogic devices
- Digital art
- digital computing
- electricity
- emergence
- everyday digital machinery
- Gabon
- Generative art
- generative systems
- Hardware
- insular networks
- interview
- Martin Howse
- Materiality
- Mathematics
- media art
- memory vs processor
- memory vs processor
- non-universal devices
- physical network
- Pi
- proto-computing
- protocomputing
- Ralf Baecker
- Ramon Llull
- simulation
- software art
- Technology
- Theoretical computer science
- Turing machine
- Visual arts

How an artificial agents should choose/switch target? How should I calculate threat of the enemy? How should you calculate the hit chance and decide if the target has shot or not? Here's one way of how.

TED Talks are free and pretty bloody good if you didn’t already know and, over the last few years, this goodness has widened its free gamut to include the TED brand, methods and formats. As TEDGlobal’s director Bruno Giussani puts it: “The more you give away the more you get back.”

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- Arithmetic
- Arithmetic precision
- Billy Ethridge
- Daniel Lemire
- Digit
- hybrid car
- Manitoba
- Mathematical notation
- matrix multiplication algorithm
- matrix multiplication algorithm
- multi-processing environments
- Neil Conway
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- Numeral system
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- Peter Norvig
- Pi
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- Significant figures
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- Unix

Yves Saint Laurent have commissioned Black Swan director Darren Aronofsky to produce the commercial for their La Nuit de L'Homme cologne. The 2-minute advertisement follows French actor Vincent Cassel as he prowls Parisien clubs, becoming a visual representation for the scent which YSL describe as "magnetic", "wildly sensual" and "barely restrained".

Several other members of the Black Swan crew worked on the commercial as well, including composer Clint Mansell, writer Mark Heyman and associate producer Ari Handel. Aronofsky reportedly took inspiration from "The Seducer's Diary", written by Soren Kierkegaard - the story of a man "dedicated to creating the possibility of seduction through the careful manipulation of young women."