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Original author: 
Johnny Chung Lee


A little less than than a year ago, I transfered to a new group within Motorola called Advanced Technology and Projects (ATAP) which was setup after the Google acquisition of Motorola last year (yes, Google owns Motorola now).

The person hired to run this new group is Regina Dugan, who was previously the director of the Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA). This is the same organization that funded projects such as ARPANET, the DARPA Grand Challenge, Mother of All Demos, Big Dog, CALO (which evolved into Apple's Siri), Exoskeletons, and Hypersonic Vehicles that could reach any point on earth in 60 minutes.

It's a place with big ideas powered by big science.

The philosophy behind Motorola ATAP is to create an organization with the same level of appetite for technology advancement as DARPA, but with a consumer focus. It is a pretty interesting place to be.

One of the ways DARPA was capable of having such a impressive portfolio of projects is because they work heavily with outside research organizations in both industry and academia.  If you talk to a university professor or graduate student in engineering, there is a very good chance their department has a DARPA funded project.  However, when companies want to work with universities, it has always been notoriously difficult to get through the paperwork of putting research collaborations in place due to long legal discussions over IP ownership and commercialization terms lasting several months.

To address this issue head on, ATAP created a Multi-University Research Agreement (MURA). A single document that every university partner could sign to accelerate the collaboration between ATAP and research institutions, reducing the time to engage academic research partners from several months to a couple weeks. The agreement has been signed by Motorola, California Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, Harvard University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Tech.  As we engage more research partners, their signatures will be added to the same document.

"The multi-university agreement is really the first of its kind," said Kaigham J. Gabriel, vice president and deputy director of ATAP. "Such an agreement has the potential to be a national model for how companies and universities work together to speed innovation and US competitiveness, while staying true to their individual missions and cultures."

This may seem a little dry.  But to me, what it means is that I can approach some of the smartest people in the country and ask, "do you want to build the future together?" and all they have to say is, "yes."

Let's do it.

Full press release here.

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Original author: 
Lars Kappert

  

We are talking and reading a lot about responsive Web design (RWD) these days, but very little attention is given to Web applications. Admittedly, RWD still has to be ironed out. But many of us believe it to be a strong concept, and it is here to stay. So, why don’t we extend this topic to HTML5-powered applications? Because responsive Web applications (RWAs) are both a huge opportunity and a big challenge, I wanted to dive in.

Building a RWA is more feasible than you might think. In this article, we will explore ideas and solutions. In the first part, we will set up some important concepts. We will build on these in the second part to actually develop a RWA, and then explore how scalable and portable this approach is.

Part 1: Becoming Responsible

Some Lessons Learned

It’s not easy to admit, but recently it has become more and more apparent that we don’t know many things about users of our websites. Varying screen sizes, device features and input mechanisms are pretty much RWD’s reasons for existence.

From the lessons we’ve learned so far, we mustn’t assume too much. For instance, a small screen is not necessarily a touch device. A mobile device could be over 1280 pixels wide. And a desktop could have a slow connection. We just don’t know. And that’s fine. This means we can focus on these things separately without making assumptions: that’s what responsiveness is all about.

Progressive Enhancement

The “JavaScript-enabled” debate is so ’90s. We need to optimize for accessibility and indexability (i.e. SEO) anyway. Claiming that JavaScript is required for Web apps and, thus, that there is no real need to pre-render HTML is fair (because SEO is usually not or less important for apps). But because we are going responsive, we will inherently pay a lot attention to mobile and, thus, to performance as well. This is why we are betting heavily on progressive enhancement.

Responsive Web Design

RWD has mostly to do with not knowing the screen’s width. We have multiple tools to work with, such as media queries, relative units and responsive images. No matter how wonderful RWD is conceptually, some technical issues still need to be solved.

start-image_mini
Not many big websites have gone truly responsive since The Boston Globe. (Image credits: Antoine Lefeuvre)

Client-Side Solutions

In the end, RWD is mostly about client-side solutions. Assuming that the server basically sends the same initial document and resources (images, CSS and JavaScript) to every device, any responsive measures will be taken on the client, such as:

  • applying specific styles through media queries;
  • using (i.e. polyfilling) <picture> or @srcset to get responsive images;
  • loading additional content.

Some of the issues surrounding RWD today are the following:

  • Responsive images haven’t been standardized.
  • Devices still load the CSS behind media queries that they never use.
  • We lack (browser-supported) responsive layout systems (think flexbox, grid, regions, template).
  • We lack element queries.

Server-Side Solutions: Responsive Content

Imagine that these challenges (such as images not being responsive and CSS loading unnecessarily) were solved on all devices and in all browsers, and that we didn’t have to resort to hacks or polyfills in the client. This would transfer some of the load from the client to the server (for instance, the CMS would have more control over responsive images).

But we would still face the issue of responsive content. Although many believe that the constraints of mobile help us to focus, to write better content and to build better designs, sometimes it’s simply not enough. This is where server-side solutions such as RESS and HTTP Client Hints come in. Basically, by knowing the device’s constraints and features up front, we can serve a different and optimized template to it.

Assuming we want to COPE, DRY and KISS and stuff, I think it comes down to where you want to draw the line here: the more important that performance and content tailored to each device is, the more necessary server-side assistance becomes. But we also have to bet on user-agent detection and on content negation. I’d say that this is a big threshold, but your mileage may vary. In any case, I can see content-focused websites getting there sooner than Web apps.

Having said that, I am focusing on RWAs in this article without resorting to server-side solutions.

Responsive Behavior

RWD is clearly about layout and design, but we will also have to focus on responsive behavior. It is what makes applications different from websites. Fluid grids and responsive images are great, but once we start talking about Web applications, we also have to be responsive in loading modules according to screen size or device capability (i.e. pretty much media queries for JavaScript).

For instance, an application might require GPS to be usable. Or it might contain a large interactive table that just doesn’t cut it on a small screen. And we simply can’t set display: none on all of these things, nor can we build everything twice.

We clearly need more.

Part 2: Building RWAs

To quickly recap, our fundamental concepts are:

  • progressive enhancement,
  • responsive design,
  • responsive behavior.

Fully armed, we will now look into a way to build responsive, context-aware applications. We’ll do this by declaratively specifying modules, conditions for loading modules, and extended modules or variants, based on feature detection and media queries. Then, we’ll dig deeper into the mechanics of dependency injection to see how all of this can be implemented.

Declarative Module Injection

We’ll start off by applying the concepts of progressive enhancement and mobile first, and create a common set of HTML, CSS and JavaScript for all devices. Later, we’ll progressively enhance the application based on content, screen size, device features, etc. The foundation is always plain HTML. Consider this fragment:


<div data-module="myModule">
    <p>Pre-rendered content</p>
</div>

Let’s assume we have some logic to query the data-module attribute in our document, to load up the referenced application module (myModule) and then to attach it to that element. Basically, we would be adding behavior that targets a particular fragment in the document.

This is our first step in making a Web application responsive: progressive module injection. Also, note that we could easily attach multiple modules to a single page in this way.

Conditional Module Injection

Sometimes we want to load a module only if a certain condition is met — for instance, when the device has a particular feature, such as touch or GPS:


<div data-module="find/my/dog" data-condition="gps">
    <p>Pre-rendered fallback content if GPS is unavailable.</p>
</div>

This will load the find/my/dog module only if the geolocation API is available.

Note: For the smallest footprint possible, we’ll simply use our own feature detection for now. (Really, we’re just checking for 'geolocation' in navigator.) Later, we might need more robust detection and so delegate this task to a tool such as Modernizr or Has.js (and possibly PhoneGap in hybrid mode).

Extended Module Injection

What if we want to load variants of a module based on media queries? Take this syntax:


<div data-module="myModule" data-variant="large">
    <p>Pre-rendered content</p>
</div>

This will load myModule on small screens and myModule/large on large screens.

For brevity, this single attribute contains the condition and the location of the variant (by convention). Programmatically, you could go mobile first and have the latter extend from the former (or separated modules, or even the other way around). This can be decided case by case.

Media Queries

Of course, we couldn’t call this responsive if it wasn’t actually driven by media queries. Consider this CSS:


@media all and (min-width: 45em) {
	body:after {
		content: 'large';
		display: none;
	}
}

Then, from JavaScript this value can be read:


var size = window.getComputedStyle(document.body,':after').getPropertyValue('content');

And this is why we can decide to load the myModule/large module from the last example if size === "large", and load myModule otherwise. Being able to conditionally not load a module at all is useful, too:


<div data-module="myModule" data-condition="!small">
    <p>Pre-rendered content</p>
</div>

There might be cases for media queries inside module declarations:


<div data-module="myModule" data-matchMedia="min-width: 800px">
    <p>Pre-rendered content</p>
</div>

Here we can use the window.matchMedia() API (a polyfill is available). I normally wouldn’t recommend doing this because it’s not very maintainable. Following breakpoints as set in CSS seems logical (because page layout probably dictates which modules to show or hide anyway). But obviously it depends on the situation. Targeted element queries may also prove useful:


<div data-module="myModule" data-matchMediaElement="(min-width: 600px)"></div>

Please note that the names of the attributes used here represent only an example, a basic implementation. They’re supposed to clarify the idea. In a real-world scenario, it might be wise to, for example, namespace the attributes, to allow for multiple modules and/or conditions, and so on.

Device Orientation

Take special care with device orientation. We don’t want to load a different module when the device is rotated. So, the module itself should be responsive, and the page’s layout might need to accommodate for this.

Connecting The Dots

The concept of responsive behavior allows for a great deal of flexibility in how applications are designed and built. We will now look into where those “modules” come in, how they relate to application structure, and how this module injection might actually work.

Applications and Modules

We can think of a client-side application as a group of application modules that are built with low-level modules. As an example, we might have User and Message models and a MessageDetail view to compose an Inbox application module, which is part of an entire email client application. The details of implementation, such as the module format to be used (for example, AMD, CommonJS or the “revealing module” pattern), are not important here. Also, defining things this way doesn’t mean we can’t have a bunch of mini-apps on a single page. On the other hand, I have found this approach to scale well to applications of any size.

A Common Scenario

An approach I see a lot is to put something like <div id="container"> in the HTML, and then load a bunch of JavaScript that uses that element as a hook to append layouts or views. For a single application on a single page, this works fine, but in my experience it doesn’t scale well:

  • Application modules are not very reusable because they rely on a particular element to be present.
  • When multiple applications or application modules are to be instantiated on a single page, they all need their own particular element, further increasing complexity.

To solve these issues, instead of letting application modules control themselves, what about making them more reusable by providing the element they should attach to? Additionally, we don’t need to know which modules must be loaded up front; we will do that dynamically. Let’s see how things come together using powerful patterns such as Dependency Injection (DI) and Inversion of Control (IOC).

Dependency Injection

You might have wondered how myModule actually gets loaded and instantiated.

Loading the dependency is pretty easy. For instance, take the string from the data-module attribute (myModule), and have a module loader fetch the myModule.js script.

Let’s assume we are using AMD or CommonJS (either of which I highly recommended) and that the module exports something (say, its public API). Let’s also assume that this is some kind of constructor that can be instantiated. We don’t know how to instantiate it because we don’t know exactly what it is up front. Should we instantiate it using new? What arguments should be passed? Is it a native JavaScript constructor function or a Backbone view or something completely different? Can we make sure the module attaches itself to the DOM element that we provide it with?

We have a couple of possible approaches here. A simple one is to always expect the same exported value — such as a Backbone view. It’s simple but might be enough. It would come down to this (using AMD and a Backbone view):


var moduleNode = document.querySelector('[data-module]'),
    moduleName = node.getAttribute('data-module');

require([moduleName], function(MyBackBoneView) {
    new MyBackBoneView({
        el: moduleNode
    });
})

That’s the gist of it. It works fine, but there are even better ways to apply this pattern of dependency injection.

IOC Containers

Let’s take a library such as the excellent wire.js library by cujoJS. An important concept in wire.js is “wire specs,” which essentially are IOC containers. It performs the actual instantiation of the application modules based on a declarative specification. Going this route, the data-module should reference a wire spec (instead of a module) that describes what module to load and how to instantiate it, allowing for practically any type of module. Now, all we need to do is pass the reference to the spec and the viewNode to wire.js. We can simply define this:


wire([specName, { viewNode: moduleNode }]);

Much better. We let wire.js do all of the hard work. Besides, wire has a ton of other features.

In summary, we can say that our declarative composition in HTML (<div data-module="">) is parsed by the composer, and consults the advisor about whether the module should be loaded (data-condition) and which module to load (data-module or data-variant), so that the dependency injector (DI, wire.js) can load and apply the correct spec and application module:

Declarative Composition

Detections for screen size and device features that are used to build responsive applications are sometimes implemented deep inside application logic. This responsibility should be laid elsewhere, decoupled more from the particular applications. We are already doing our (responsive) layout composition with HTML and CSS, so responsive applications fit in naturally. You could think of the HTML as an IOC container to compose applications.

You might not like to put (even) more information in the HTML. And honestly, I don’t like it at all. But it’s the price to pay for optimized performance when scaling up. Otherwise, we would have to make another request to find out whether and which module to load, which defeats the purpose.

Wrapping Up

I think the combination of declarative application composition, responsive module loading and module extension opens up a boatload of options. It gives you a lot of freedom to implement application modules the way you want, while supporting a high level of performance, maintainability and software design.

Performance and Build

Sometimes RWD actually decreases the performance of a website when implemented superficially (such as by simply adding some media queries or extra JavaScript). But for RWA, performance is actually what drives the responsive injection of modules or variants of modules. In the spirit of mobile first, load only what is required (and enhance from there).

Looking at the build process to minify and optimize applications, we can see that the challenge lies in finding the right approach to optimize either for a single application or for reusable application modules across multiple pages or contexts. In the former case, concatenating all resources into a single JavaScript file is probably best. In the latter case, concatenating resources into a separate shared core file and then packaging application modules into separate files is a sound approach.

A Scalable Approach

Responsive behavior and complete RWAs are powerful in a lot of scenarios, and they can be implemented using various patterns. We have only scratched the surface. But technically and conceptually, the approach is highly scalable. Let’s look at some example scenarios and patterns:

  • Sprinkle bits of behavior onto static content websites.
  • Serve widgets in a portal-like environment (think a dashboard, iGoogle or Netvibes). Load a single widget on a small screen, and enable more as screen resolution allows.
  • Compose context-aware applications in HTML using reusable and responsive application modules.

In general, the point is to maximize portability and reach by building on proven concepts to run applications on multiple platforms and environments.

Future-Proof and Portable

Some of the major advantages of building applications in HTML5 is that they’re future-proof and portable. Write HTML5 today and your efforts won’t be obsolete tomorrow. The list of platforms and environments where HTML5-powered applications run keeps growing rapidly:

  • As regular Web applications in browsers;
  • As hybrid applications on mobile platforms, powered by Apache Cordova (see note below):
    • iOS,
    • Android,
    • Windows Phone,
    • BlackBerry;
  • As Open Web Apps (OWA), currently only in Firefox OS;
  • As desktop applications (such as those packaged by the Sencha Desktop Packager):
    • Windows,
    • OS X,
    • Linux.

Note: Tools such as Adobe PhoneGap Build, IBM Worklight and Telerik’s Icenium all use Apache Cordova APIs to access native device functionality.

Demo

You might want to dive into some code or see things in action. That’s why I created a responsive Web apps repository on GitHub, which also serves as a working demo.

Conclusion

Honestly, not many big websites (let alone true Web applications) have gone truly responsive since The Boston Globe. However, looking at deciding factors such as cost, distribution, reach, portability and auto-updating, RWAs are both a huge opportunity and a big challenge. It’s only a matter of time before they become much more mainstream.

We are still looking for ways to get there, and we’ve covered just one approach to building RWAs here. In any case, declarative composition for responsive applications is quite powerful and could serve as a solid starting point.

(al) (ea)

© Lars Kappert for Smashing Magazine, 2013.

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Original author: 
David Storey

  

Flexible box layout (or flexbox) is a new box model optimized for UI layout. As one of the first CSS modules designed for actual layout (floats were really meant mostly for things such as wrapping text around images), it makes a lot of tasks much easier, or even possible at all. Flexbox’s repertoire includes the simple centering of elements (both horizontally and vertically), the expansion and contraction of elements to fill available space, and source-code independent layout, among others abilities.

Flexbox has lived a storied existence. It started as a feature of Mozilla’s XUL, where it was used to lay out application UI, such as the toolbars in Firefox, and it has since been rewritten multiple times. The specification has only recently reached stability, and we have fairly complete support across the latest versions of the leading browsers.

There are, however, some caveats. The specification changed between the implementation in Internet Explorer (IE) and the release of IE 10, so you will need to use a slightly different syntax. Chrome currently still requires the -webkit- prefix, and Firefox and Safari are still on the much older syntax. Firefox has updated to the latest specification, but that implementation is currently behind a runtime flag until it is considered stable and bug-free enough to be turned on by default. Until then, Firefox still requires the old syntax.

When you specify that an element will use the flexbox model, its children are laid out along either the horizontal or vertical axis, depending on the direction specified. The widths of these children expand or contract to fill the available space, based on the flexible length they are assigned.

Example: Horizontal And Vertical Centering (Or The Holy Grail Of Web Design)

Being able to center an element on the page is perhaps the number one wish among Web designers — yes, probably even higher than gaining the highly prized parent selector or putting IE 6 out of its misery (OK, maybe a close second then). With flexbox, this is trivially easy. Let’s start with a basic HTML template, with a heading that we want to center. Eventually, once we’ve added all the styling, it will end up looking like this vertically and horizontally centered demo.


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
   <meta charset="utf-8"/>
   <title>Centering an Element on the Page</title>
</head>
<body>
   <h1>OMG, I’m centered</h1>
</body>
</html>

Nothing special here, not even a wrapper div. The magic all happens in the CSS:


html {
   height: 100%;
} 

body {
   display: -webkit-box;   /* OLD: Safari,  iOS, Android browser, older WebKit browsers.  */
   display: -moz-box;   /* OLD: Firefox (buggy) */ 
   display: -ms-flexbox;   /* MID: IE 10 */
   display: -webkit-flex;    /* NEW, Chrome 21+ */
   display: flex;       /* NEW: Opera 12.1, Firefox 22+ */

   -webkit-box-align: center; -moz-box-align: center; /* OLD… */
   -ms-flex-align: center; /* You know the drill now… */
   -webkit-align-items: center;
   align-items: center;

    -webkit-box-pack: center; -moz-box-pack: center; 
   -ms-flex-pack: center; 
   -webkit-justify-content: center;
   justify-content: center;

   margin: 0;
   height: 100%;
   width: 100% /* needed for Firefox */
} 

h1 {
   display: -webkit-box; display: -moz-box;
   display: -ms-flexbox;
   display: -webkit-flex;
   display: flex;
 
   -webkit-box-align: center; -moz-box-align: center;
   -ms-flex-align: center;
   -webkit-align-items: center;
   align-items: center;

   height: 10rem;
}

I’ve included all of the different prefixed versions in the CSS above, from the very oldest, which is still needed, to the modern and hopefully final syntax. This might look confusing, but the different syntaxes map fairly well to each other, and I’ve included tables at the end of this article to show the exact mappings.

This is not exactly all of the CSS needed for our example, because I’ve stripped out the extra styling that you probably already know how to use in order to save space.

Let’s look at the CSS that is needed to center the heading on the page. First, we set the html and body elements to have 100% height and remove any margins. This will make the container of our h1 take up the full height of the browser’s window. Firefox also needs a width specified on the body to force it to behave. Now, we just need to center everything.

Enabling Flexbox

Because the body element contains the heading that we want to center, we will set its display value to flex:


body {
   display: flex;
}

This switches the body element to use the flexbox layout, rather than the regular block layout. All of its children in the flow of the document (i.e. not absolutely positioned elements) will now become flex items.

The syntax used by IE 10 is display: -ms-flexbox, while older Firefox and WebKit browsers use display: -prefix-box (where prefix is either moz or webkit). You can see the tables at the end of this article to see the mappings of the various versions.

What do we gain now that our elements have been to yoga class and become all flexible? They gain untold powers: they can flex their size and position relative to the available space; they can be laid out either horizontally or vertically; and they can even achieve source-order independence. (Two holy grails in one specification? We’re doing well.)

Centering Horizontally

Next, we want to horizontally center our h1 element. No big deal, you might say; but it is somewhat easier than playing around with auto margins. We just need to tell the flexbox to center its flex items. By default, flex items are laid out horizontally, so setting the justify-content property will align the items along the main axis:


body {
   display: flex;
   justify-content: center;
}

For IE 10, the property is called flex-pack, while for older browsers it is box-pack (again, with the appropriate prefixes). The other possible values are flex-start, flex-end, space-between and space-around. These are start, end, justify and distribute, respectively, in IE 10 and the old specification (distribute is, however, not supported in the old specification). The flex-start value aligns to the left (or to the right with right-to-left text), flex-end aligns to the right, space-between evenly distributes the elements along the axis, and space-around evenly distributes along the axis, with half-sized spaces at the start and end of the line.

To explicitly set the axis that the element is aligned along, you can do this with the flex-flow property. The default is row, which will give us the same result that we’ve just achieved. To align along the vertical axis, we can use flex-flow: column. If we add this to our example, you will notice that the element is vertically centered but loses the horizontal centering. Reversing the order by appending -reverse to the row or column values is also possible (flex-flow: row-reverse or flex-flow: column-reverse), but that won’t do much in our example because we have only one item.

There are some differences here in the various versions of the specification, which are highlighted at the end of this article. Another caveat to bear in mind is that flex-flow directions are writing-mode sensitive. That is, when using writing-mode: vertical-rl to switch to vertical text layout (as used traditionally in China, Japan and Korea), flex-flow: row will align the items vertically, and column will align them horizontally.

Centering Vertically

Centering vertically is as easy as centering horizontally. We just need to use the appropriate property to align along the “cross-axis.” The what? The cross-axis is basically the axis perpendicular to the main one. So, if flex items are aligned horizontally, then the cross-axis would be vertical, and vice versa. We set this with the align-items property (flex-align in IE 10, and box-align for older browsers):


body {
   /* Remember to use the other versions for IE 10 and older browsers! */
   display: flex;
   justify-content: center;
   align-items: center;
}

This is all there is to centering elements with flexbox! We can also use the flex-start (start) and flex-end (end) values, as well as baseline and stretch. Let’s have another look at the finished example:

figure1.1_mini
Simple horizontal and vertical centering using flexbox. Larger view.

You might notice that the text is also center-aligned vertically inside the h1 element. This could have been done with margins or a line height, but we used flexbox again to show that it works with anonymous boxes (in this case, the line of text inside the h1 element). No matter how high the h1 element gets, the text will always be in the center:


h1 {
   /* Remember to use the other versions for IE 10 and older browsers! */
   display: flex;
   align-items: center;
   height: 10rem;
}

Flexible Sizes

If centering elements was all flexbox could do, it’d be pretty darn cool. But there is more. Let’s see how flex items can expand and contract to fit the available space within a flexbox element. Point your browser to this next example.

figure1.2_mini
An interactive slideshow built using flexbox. Larger view.

The HTML and CSS for this example are similar to the previous one’s. We’re enabling flexbox and centering the elements on the page in the same way. In addition, we want to make the title (inside the header element) remain consistent in size, while the five boxes (the section elements) adjust in size to fill the width of the window. To do this, we use the new flex property:


section {
   /* removed other styles to save space */
   -prefix-box-flex: 1; /* old spec webkit, moz */
   flex: 1;
   height: 250px;
}

What we’ve just done here is to make each section element take up 1 flex unit. Because we haven’t set any explicit width, each of the five boxes will be the same width. The header element will take up a set width (277 pixels) because it is not flexible. We divide the remaining width inside the body element by 5 to calculate the width of each of the section elements. Now, if we resize the browser window, the section elements will grow or shrink.

In this example, we’ve set a consistent height, but this could be set to be flexible, too, in exactly the same way. We probably wouldn’t always want all elements to be the same size, so let’s make one bigger. On hover, we’ve set the element to take up 2 flex units:


section:hover {
   -prefix-box-flex: 2;
   flex: 2;
   cursor: pointer;
}

Now the available space is divided by 6 rather than 5, and the hovered element gets twice the base amount. Note that an element with 2 flex units does not necessarily become twice as wide as one with 1 unit. It just gets twice the share of the available space added to its “preferred width.” In our examples, the “preferred width” is 0 (the default).

Source-Order Independence

For our last party trick, we’ll study how to achieve source-order independence in our layouts. When clicking on a box, we will tell that element to move to the left of all the other boxes, directly after the title. All we have to do is set the order with the order property. By default, all flex items are in the 0 position. Because they’re in the same position, they follow the source order. Click on your favorite person in the updated example to see their order change.

figure1.3_mini
An interactive slideshow with flex-order. Larger view.

To make our chosen element move to the first position, we just have to set a lower number. I chose -1. We also need to set the header to -1 so that the selected section element doesn’t get moved before it:


header {
   -prefix-box-ordinal-group: 1; /* old spec; must be positive */
   -ms-flex-order: -1; /* IE 10 syntax */
   order: -1; /* new syntax */
} 

section[aria-pressed="true"] {
   /* Set order lower than 0 so it moves before other section elements,
      except old spec, where it must be positive.
 */
   -prefix-box-ordinal-group: 1;
   -ms-flex-order: -1;
   order: -1;

   -prefix-box-flex: 3;
   flex: 3;
   max-width: 370px; /* Stops it from getting too wide. */
}

In the old specification, the property for setting the order (box-ordinal-group) accepts only a positive integer. Therefore, I’ve set the order to 2 for each section element (code not shown) and updated it to 1 for the active element. If you are wondering what aria-pressed="true" means in the example above, it is a WAI-ARIA attribute/value that I add via JavaScript when the user clicks on one of the sections.

This relays accessibility hints to the underlying system and to assistive technology to tell the user that that element is pressed and, thus, active. If you’d like more information on WAI-ARIA, check out “Introduction to WAI-ARIA” by Gez Lemon. Because I’m adding the attribute after the user clicks, this example requires a simple JavaScript file in order to work, but flexbox itself doesn’t require it; it’s just there to handle the user interaction.

Hopefully, this has given you some inspiration and enough introductory knowledge of flexbox to enable you to experiment with your own designs.

Syntax Changes

As you will have noticed throughout this article, the syntax has changed a number of times since it was first implemented. To aid backward- and forward-porting between the different versions, we’ve included tables below, which map the changes between the specifications.

Specification versions

Specification
IE
Opera
Firefox
Chrome
Safari

Standard
11?
12.10+ *
Behind flag
21+ (-webkit-)

Mid
10 (-ms-)

Old

3+ (-moz-)
<21 (-webkit-)
3+ (-webkit-)

* Opera will soon switch to WebKit. It will then require the -webkit- prefix if it has not been dropped by that time.

Enabling flexbox: setting an element to be a flex container

Specification
Property name
Block-level flex
Inline-level flex

Standard
display
flex
inline-flex

Mid
display
flexbox
inline-flexbox

Old
display
box
inline-box

Axis alignment: specifying alignment of items along the main flexbox axis

Specification
Property name
start
center
end
justify
distribute

Standard
justify-content
flex-start
center
flex-end
space-between
space-around

Mid
flex-pack
start
center
end
justify
distribute

Old
box-pack
start
center
end
justify
N/A

Cross-axis alignment: specifying alignment of items along the cross-axis

Specification
Property name
start
center
end
baseline
stretch

Standard
align-items
flex-start
center
flex-end
baseline
stretch

Mid
flex-align
start
center
end
baseline
stretch

Old
box-align
start
center
end
baseline
stretch

Individual cross-axis alignment: override to align individual items along the cross-axis

Specification
Property name
auto
start
center
end
baseline
stretch

Standard
align-self
auto
flex-start
center
flex-end
baseline
stretch

Mid
flex-item-align
auto
start
center
end
baseline
stretch

Old
N/A

Flex line alignment: specifying alignment of flex lines along the cross-axis

Specification
Property name
start
center
end
justify
distribute
stretch

Standard
align-content
flex-start
center
flex-end
space-between
space-around
stretch

Mid
flex-line-pack
start
center
end
justify
distribute
stretch

Old
N/A

This takes effect only when there are multiple flex lines, which is the case when flex items are allowed to wrap using the flex-wrap property and there isn’t enough space for all flex items to display on one line. This will align each line, rather than each item.

Display order: specifying the order of flex items

Specification
Property name
Value

Standard
order

Mid
flex-order
<number>

Old
box-ordinal-group
<integer>

Flexibility: specifying how the size of items flex

Specification
Property name
Value

Standard
flex
none | [ <flex-grow> <flex-shrink>? || <flex-basis>]

Mid
flex
none | [ [ <pos-flex> <neg-flex>? ] || <preferred-size> ]

Old
box-flex
<number>

The flex property is more or less unchanged between the new standard and the draft supported by Microsoft. The main difference is that it has been converted to a shorthand in the new version, with separate properties: flex-grow, flex-shrink and flex-basis. The values may be used in the same way in the shorthand. However, the default value for flex-shrink (previously called negative flex) is now 1. This means that items do not shrink by default. Previously, negative free space would be distributed using the flex-shrink ratio, but now it is distributed in proportion to flex-basis multiplied by the flex-shrink ratio.

Direction: specifying the direction of the main flexbox axis

Specification
Property name
Horizontal
Reversed horizontal
Vertical
Reversed vertical

Standard
flex-direction
row
row-reverse
column
column-reverse

Mid
flex-direction
row
row-reverse
column
column-reverse

Old
box-orient

box-direction
horizontal

normal
horizontal

reverse
vertical

normal
vertical

reverse

In the old version of the specification, the box-direction property needs to be set to reverse to get the same behavior as row-reverse or column-reverse in the later version of the specification. This can be omitted if you want the same behavior as row or column because normal is the initial value.

When setting the direction to reverse, the main flexbox axis is flipped. This means that when using a left-to-right writing system, the items will display from right to left when row-reverse is specified. Similarly, column-reverse will lay out flex items from bottom to top, instead of top to bottom.

The old version of the specification also has writing mode-independent values for box-orient. When using a left-to-write writing system, horizontal may be substituted for inline-axis, and vertical may be substituted for block-axis. If you are using a top-to-bottom writing system, such as those traditional in East Asia, then these values would be flipped.

Wrapping: specifying whether and how flex items wrap along the cross-axis

Specification
Property name
No wrapping
Wrapping
Reversed wrap

Standard
flex-wrap
nowrap
wrap
wrap-reverse

Mid
flex-wrap
nowrap
wrap
wrap-reverse

Old
box-lines
single
multiple
N/A

The wrap-reverse value flips the start and end of the cross-axis, so that if flex items are laid out horizontally, instead of items wrapping onto a new line below, they will wrap onto a new line above.

At the time of writing, Firefox does not support the flex-wrap or older box-lines property. It also doesn’t support the shorthand.

The current specification has a flex-flow shorthand, which controls both wrapping and direction. The behavior is the same as the one in the version of the specification implemented by IE 10. It is also currently not supported by Firefox, so I would recommend to avoid using it when specifying only the flex-direction value.

Conclusion

Well, that’s a (flex-)wrap. In this article, I’ve introduced some of the myriad of possibilities afforded by flexbox. Be it source-order independence, flexible sizing or just the humble centering of elements, I’m sure you can find ways to employ flexbox in your websites and applications. The syntax has settled down (finally!), and implementations are here. All major browsers now support flexbox in at least their latest versions.

While some browsers use an older syntax, Firefox looks like it is close to updating, and IE 11 uses the latest version in leaked Windows Blue builds. There is currently no word on Safari, but it is a no-brainer considering that Chrome had the latest syntax before the Blink-WebKit split. For the time being, use the tables above to map the various syntaxes, and get your flex on.

Layout in CSS is only getting more powerful, and flexbox is one of the first steps out of the quagmire we’ve found ourselves in over the years, first with table-based layouts, then float-based layouts. IE 10 already supports an early draft of the Grid layout specification, which is great for page layout, and Regions and Exclusions will revolutionize how we handle content flow and layout.

Flexbox can be used today if you only need to support relatively modern browsers or can provide a fallback, and in the not too distant future, all sorts of options will be available, so that we can use the best tool for the job. Flexbox is shaping up to be a mighty fine tool.

Further Reading

(al)

© David Storey for Smashing Magazine, 2013.

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Casey Johnston


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Eric Schmidt may have stepped down as Google CEO in 2011, but he hasn't been any less vocal in his current role as executive chairman. Schmidt is known for his outspoken views and often provocative statements on just about everything in the technology world — follow this StoryStream to keep track of them all.

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Google

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