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By Dominique Hazaël-Massieux: People used to stare at me and laugh, back in 2005 when W3C launched its Mobile Web Initiative to advocate the importance of the web to the mobile world. Now I am the one smiling much of the time, as I did most recently during the 2013 edition of the Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona, one of the largest events to focus on mobile devices and networks.

This year W3C had a huge HTML5 logo splashed across its booth to emphasize the impact of the Open Web Platform across industries and devices. But the real adoption story was told by the HTML5 logos prominent at many, many other booths. The web has gained real visibility on mobile, and we should all be smiling because we are all getting closer to a platform for reaching more people on more devices at lower cost.

MWC 2013 also confirmed that HTML5 has broken out of the browser. We are seeing more and more HTML5-based development platforms, such as PhoneGap, Windows 8, Blackberry, and Tizen. Mozilla’s big announcement at MWC 2013 centered on FirefoxOS, Mozilla’s mobile operating system entirely based on web technologies. W3C and Intel partnered to create a T-shirt that says “I See HTML5 Everywhere.” And indeed, I do.

The challenge of mobile

Not only has the web a big role to play on mobile, mobile has also a key role to play for the web. As more and more of our connected interactions start or end on mobile devices, we must ensure that the web platform adapts to our mobile lives. I believe this is critical for the future of the web.

For many years W3C has designed technology to make the experience of web users on mobile ever more rich, adapted, and integrated. For example, CSS media queries provide the basis for responsive web design. There is already a lot for mobile, and a lot more is coming. To help people follow all the activity, every quarter I publish an overview of web technologies that are most relevant to mobile.

These technologies are the tools designers can rely on to build the user experience they need. But technologies are only a small piece of the puzzle when it comes to making the web user experience work on mobile devices. The number of A List Apart articles about mobile development provides a clear sign that this challenge is driving creativity in the design community. Responsive web design, mobile first, future friendly, and just-in-time interactions are some of the trends that have resonated with me over the years. The creativity is fantastic, but we still want our lives to be easier. Where web technologies do not yet provide the hooks you need to practice your craft, please let us know. Feel free to write me directly: dom@w3.org.

Closing the gap

Another challenge that we, the web community, face on mobile is the amazing energy devoted to native development.

The web has displaced a lot of the native software development on traditional computers; on mobile, the reverse trend has happened. Content that users had enjoyed on the web for years started to migrate to native applications: newspapers, social networking, media sharing, government services, to name a few. And to add insult to injury, a number of these content providers are pushing their users away from their website toward their native application, with obtrusive banners or pop-ups.

It is unclear where the world is going on mobile: some statistics and reports show a strong push toward moving back to the web (e.g., the recent Kendo UI survey), while others argue the opposite. What is clear to me, though, is that we cannot afford to let mobile become a native-entrenched ecosystem.

What has made the web unique and popular in so many hearts is not the technology (some great, some terrible) nor even the ubiquity (since interoperability can reduce it). I believe the much more fundamental importance of the web comes from its structural openness: anyone can publish the content they see fit and anyone can participate in defining the future of the web as a platform.

Native ecosystems on mobile have historically been very closed ecosystems, under the control of single commercial entities. A world where the majority of our information and infrastructure would be trapped inside these ecosystems is not something we should accept lightly. Mind you, I appreciate the innovations spawned by these platforms, but we need to encourage the cycle where innovations become standards, and those standards prime the platform for the next innovations.

Of course the best way to shift the balance to the web is to make the web the best platform for mobile. Achieving this will require ideas and energy from many people, and web developers and designers play a critical role in shaping the next generation of web user experiences. I am leading a focused effort in W3C to assess what we can and should do to make the web more competitive on mobile, and welcome feedback and ideas on what the missing pieces in the puzzle are.

Beyond mobile

I believe a key part in making the web the “king of mobile” is to realize that mobile devices are a means to an end. In our connected world—computers, phones, tablets, TVs, cars, glasses, watches, refrigerators, lightbulbs, sensors and more to come—mobile phones will most likely remain the hub for while. The only platform that can realistically be made available on all these devices is the web.

We have a unique opportunity to make the Open Web Platform a success. I realize getting it right will not be trivial. Building user experiences that scale from mobile (or watches!) to TV is complex. Building user experiences that adapt to these very different type of interactions will be hard. Matching the needs from users in a growing diversity of contexts will make us cringe. Creating user experiences that abolish the devices barrier (as I explored some months ago) is guaranteed to create more than a few headaches.

But there is unprecedented momentum to create an open platform for the planet. And that has me smiling a lot.

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HTML5 Logo

Today, the Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C) is announcing that it’s completed its three-year quest to finalize the HTML5 specification. As the W3C says in its press release, "HTML5 is the cornerstone of the Open Web Platform," the cross-platform programming environment usually referred to by the umbrella term "web standards." HTML5 and related technologies like JavaScript and CSS provide a way to write rich web applications designed to run on any device that follows the specifications, and many companies are hitching their futures to the platform’s success. But despite the fact that the specification is now feature complete, meaning nothing more will be added to it, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done before HTML5...

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The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has released the first draft of a new web standard aimed at improving online privacy. The W3C’s new Standard for Online Privacy is a set of tools that will ultimately enable your browser to stop sites from tracking your every move on the web.

The first draft of the new privacy standard revolves around the “Do Not Track” (DNT) HTTP header originally introduced by Mozilla as a part of Firefox 4. The DNT header — a bit of code sent every time your browser talks to a web server — can be used to tell websites you don’t want to be tracked. The goal is to give you an easy way to opt out of often invasive tracking practices like behavioral advertising.

Behavior advertising refers to the increasingly common practice of tracking your online behavior and using it to tailor ads to your habits. Advertisers use cookies to follow you around the web, tracking which sites you visit, what you buy and even, in the case of mobile browsers, where you go.

Some web browsers, including Internet Explorer and Chrome, offer an opt-out mechanism in the form of a cookie — add the cookie to your browser and participating sites won’t track your browsing. While the cookie-based approach is widely supported by advertisers, if you ever clear your browser’s cookies for any reason, your privacy settings are lost.

Mozilla’s original “Do Not Track” tool offered the same end result — broadcasting your privacy settings to advertiser’s servers — but instead of using a cookie, Mozilla’s DNT effort created a new HTTP header. The header offers a more robust and permanent solution than cookies and it’s easier for users to control via a simple browser preference.

Mozilla's basic overview of how the DNT header might work

Earlier this year Mozilla turned its DNT efforts over to the W3C where the Tracking Protection Working Group was formed. The working group thus far includes everyone from the major browser vendors to large websites like Google and Facebook. Consumer advocacy groups like Consumer Watchdog, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and even the U.S. Federal Trade Commission are also participating. This first draft of the new privacy standard is the groups’ first public release.

The new spec goes quite a bit further than Mozilla’s original definition of DNT, including sections to define how the header is transmitted, what URI servers should use to respond and how websites are to comply with the preference. Obviously, because this is just the first draft there are still many gaps in the spec.

The new privacy spec is only a first draft, but that’s not the main problem currently stopping DNT from becoming a real-world way to protect your privacy. The real problem is the advertisers. While many are already on board with the new DNT standard, so far few actually obey it. Skeptics often argue that the DNT header won’t truly protect your privacy because there’s no way to force advertising sites to obey it. That is true, and there will no doubt always be some bad apples on the web, but the advertising industry has a surprisingly good track record of self-regulation. Much of that record no doubt stems from fear that, without some degree of self-regulation, governments will step in to impose their own regulation on behalf of consumers.

The W3C’s new privacy standard effort is a long way from finished, and, because it relies on the voluntary participation of advertisers, it will likely never completely protect your privacy. Still, it’s a stronger means of opting out than cookies. Moreover, the existence of an official DNT standard blessed by the W3C just might convince more advertisers to support the initiative.

[Footprints photo by Vinoth Chandar/Flickr/CC]

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