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Original author: 
Sean Gallagher

Think mobile devices are low-power? A study by the Center for Energy-Efficient Telecommunications—a joint effort between AT&T's Bell Labs and the University of Melbourne in Australia—finds that wireless networking infrastructure worldwide accounts for 10 times more power consumption than data centers worldwide. In total, it is responsible for 90 percent of the power usage by cloud infrastructure. And that consumption is growing fast.

The study was in part a rebuttal to a Greenpeace report that focused on the power consumption of data centers. "The energy consumption of wireless access dominates data center consumption by a significant margin," the authors of the CEET study wrote. One of the findings of the CEET researchers was that wired networks and data-center based applications could actually reduce overall computing energy consumption by allowing for less powerful client devices.

According to the CEET study, by 2015, wireless "cloud" infrastructure will consume as much as 43 terawatt-hours of electricity worldwide while generating 30 megatons of carbon dioxide. That's the equivalent of 4.9 million automobiles worth of carbon emissions. This projected power consumption is a 460 percent increase from the 9.2 TWh consumed by wireless infrastructure in 2012.

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California Attorney General Kamala Harris.

The Aspen Institute

In recent months the state of California has stepped up its efforts to enforce the California Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). In December, Attorney General Kamala Harris made an example of Delta Airlines, which had ignored a letter warning the carrier that it was in violation of COPPA. The statute requires every app which collects data about California users (which, practically speaking, means every app) to conspicuously post a privacy policy disclosing what information is collected and how it will be used.

In a new report, Harris's office offers an official set of recommendations for mobile app developers. California urges app developers to "minimize surprises to users from unexpected privacy practices." In addition to posting a standard privacy policy, the state also recommends the use of "special notices" to alert users when an app might be using data in a way the user might not expect. For example, when an app needs the user's location, the user is typically alerted and given the opportunity to allow or block the application from getting the current location. The state recommends using similar notices when an app collects other sensitive information.

The 23-page report offers a wide variety of other recommendations. Most of them are directed at app developers, but there are also recommendations for the companies that operate app stores, advertising networks, and wireless networks. The state recommends that app developers limit data collection, limit data retention, and avoid using global device identifiers that could be correlated across apps.

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An Ars story from earlier this month reported that iPhones expose the unique identifiers of recently accessed wireless routers, which generated no shortage of reader outrage. What possible justification does Apple have for building this leakage capability into its entire line of wireless products when smartphones, laptops, and tablets from competitors don't? And how is it that Google, Wigle.net, and others get away with publishing the MAC addresses of millions of wireless access devices and their precise geographic location?

Some readers wanted more technical detail about the exposure, which applies to three access points the devices have most recently connected to. Some went as far as to challenge the validity of security researcher Mark Wuergler's findings. "Until I see the code running or at least a youtube I don't believe this guy has the goods," one Ars commenter wrote.

According to penetration tester Robert Graham, the findings are legit.

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mikejuk writes "This video will change the way you think about programming. The argument is clear and impressive — it suggest that we really are building programs with one hand tied behind our backs. Programmers can only understand their code by pretending to be computers and running it in their heads. As this video shows, this is increadibly inefficient and, as we generally have a computer in front of us, why not use it to help us understand the code? The key is probably interactivity. Don't wait for a compile to complete to see what effect your code has on things — if you can see it in real time then programming becomes much easier."


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