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Ilya Grigorik

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Ilya Grigorik discusses in detail how to construct a mobile website that loads as quickly as possible. A site that not only renders in 1 second, but one that is also visible in 1 second. With hard statistics as evidence to show why this matters, Ilya discusses techniques to deliver a 1000 millisecond experience.

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In this 60-minute video from An Event Apart Boston, Scott Berkun tackles designer disempowerment. He discusses how power actually works, and why developing salesmanship skills is a must, even if your job isn’t public-facing.

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Web maps have come a long way. Improved data, cleaner design, better performance, and more intuitive controls have made web maps a ubiquitous and critical component of many apps. They’ve also become one of the mobile space’s most successful transplants as more and more apps are powered by location-aware devices. The core web map UI paradigm itself—a continuous, pannable, zoomable surface—has even spread beyond mapping to interfaces everywhere.

Despite all this, we’ve barely begun to work web maps into our design practice. We create icon fonts, responsive grids, CSS frameworks, progressive enhancement strategies, and even new design processes. We tear down old solutions and build new ones, and even take an extra second to share battle stories in prose and in person. Yet nearly five years since Paul Smith’s article, “Take Control of Your Maps,” web maps are still a blind spot for most designers.

Have you ever taken apart a map? Worked with a map as a critical part of your design? Developed tricks, hacks, workarounds, or progressive enhancements for maps?

This article is a long overdue companion to Paul’s piece. Where he goes on a whirlwind survey of the web mapping stack at 10,000 feet, we’re going to walk through a single design process and implement a modern-day web map. By walking this path, I hope to begin making maps part of the collective conversation we have as designers.

Opinionated about open

Paul makes a strong case for why you might want to use open mapping tools instead of the established incumbent. I won’t retread his reasons here, but I would like to expand on his last: Open tools are the ones we hack best.

There is nothing mysterious about web maps. Take any spatial plane, split it up into discrete tiles, position them in the DOM, and add event handlers for panning and zooming. The basic formula can be applied to Portland, Mars, or Super Mario Land. It works for displaying large street maps, but nothing stops us from tinkering with it to explore galleries of art, create fictional game worlds, learn human anatomy, or simply navigate a web page. Open tools bare the guts of this mechanism to us, allowing us to see a wider range of possibilities.

 character navigation, Mars, and Super Mario Land.
The mechanics of web maps are not limited to street maps.

We should know the conditions under which map images are loaded and destroyed; we should argue whether map tiles are best positioned with CSS transforms or not; and we should care whether vector elements are drawn with SVG or Canvas. Open tools let us know and experiment with these working details of our maps. If you wouldn’t have it any other way with your HTML5, CSS, or JavaScript libraries, then you shouldn’t settle for less when it comes to maps.

In short, we’ll be working with a fully open mapping stack. MapBox, where I work, has pulled together several open source libraries into a single API that we publish under mapbox.js. Other open mapping libraries that are worth your time include Leaflet and D3.js.

Starting out

I’m a big fan of Sherlock Holmes. Between the recent Hollywood movies starring Robert Downey Jr. and the BBC’s contemporary series, I’m hooked. But as someone who has never been to London, I know I’m missing the richness of place and setting that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle meant to be read into his short stories.

A typical approach would be to embed a web map with pins of various locations alongside one of the Sherlock stories. With this approach the map becomes an appendix—a dispensable element that plays little part in Doyle’s storytelling. Instead, we’re going to expand the role of our map, integrating it fully into the narrative. It will set the stage, provide pace, and affect the mood of our story.

Comparing a map used as embedded media versus one used as a critical design element.

A tale of places

To establish a baseline for our tale, I restructured The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans to be told around places. I picked eight key locations from the original text, pulled out the essential details of the mystery, and framed them out with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Text only demo.
A Sherlock Holmes story in text only. View Demo 1.

  • The story is broken up into section elements for each key location. A small amount of JavaScript implements a scrolling flow that highlights a single section at a time.
  • Our page is not responsive yet, but it contains scaffolding to guard against bad choices that could thwart us. The main text column is fluid at 33.33% and pins to a min-width: 320px. If our content and design flow reasonably within these constraints, we’re in good shape.

Next, we’ll get started mapping. Initially we’ll work on our map separately from our story page to focus on learning key elements of a new technology.

Maps are data

The mapping equivalent of our abridged Sherlock story is a dataset of eight geographic points. GeoJSON, a format for describing geographic data in JSON, is the perfect starting point for capturing this data:

    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.15591514, 51.51830379] },
    "properties": { "title": "Baker St." }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.07571203, 51.51424049] },
    "properties": { "title": "Aldgate Station" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.08533793, 51.50438536] },
    "properties": { "title": "London Bridge Station" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [0.05991101, 51.48752939] },
    "properties": { "title": "Woolwich Arsenal" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.18335806, 51.49439521] },
    "properties": { "title": "Gloucester Station" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.19684993, 51.5033856] },
    "properties": { "title": "Caulfield Gardens" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.10669358, 51.51433123] },
    "properties": { "title": "The Daily Telegraph" }
}, {
    "geometry": { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [-0.12416858, 51.50779757] },
    "properties": { "title": "Charing Cross Station" }

Each object in our JSON array has a geometry—data that describe where this object is in space—and properties—freeform data of our own choosing to describe what this object is. Now that we have this data, we can create a very basic map.

Basic web mapping demo.
The basics of web mapping. View Demo 2.

  • Note that the coordinates are a pair of latitude and longitude degrees. In the year 2013, it is still not possible to find a consistent order for these values across mapping APIs. Some use lat,lon to meet our expectations from grade-school geography. Others use lon,lat to match x,y coordinate order: horizontal, then vertical.
  • We’re using mapbox.js as our core open source mapping library. Each map is best understood as the key parameters passed into
    1. A DOM element container
    2. One or more Photoshop-like layers that position tiles or markers
    3. Event handlers that bind user input to actions, like dragging to panning
  • Our map has two layers. Our tile layer is made up of 256x256 square images generated from a custom map on MapBox. Our spots layer is made up of pin markers generated from the GeoJSON data above.

This is a good start for our code, but nowhere near our initial goal of using a map to tell our Sherlock Holmes story.

Beyond location

According to our first map, the eight items in our GeoJSON dataset are just places, not settings in a story full of intrigue and mystery. From a visual standpoint, pins anonymize our places and express them as nothing more than locations.

To overcome this, we can use illustrations for each location—some showing settings, others showing key plot elements. Now our audience can see right away that there is more to each location than its position in space. As a canvas for these, I’ve created another map with a custom style that blends seamlessly with the images.

Web map with illustrations.
Illustrations and a custom style help our map become part of the storytelling. View Demo 3, and then read the diff.

  • The main change here is that we define a custom factory function for our markers layer. The job of the factory function is to take each GeoJSON object and convert it to a DOM element—an a, div, img, or whatever—that the layer will then position on the map.
  • Here we generate divs and switch from using a title attribute in our GeoJSON to an id. This provides us with useful CSS classes for displaying illustrations with our custom markers.

Bringing it all together

Now it’s time to combine our story with our map. By using the scroll events from before, we can coordinate sections of the story with places on the map, crafting a unified experience.

Web map coordinated to story text by a scroll handler.
As the user reads each section, the map pans to a new location. View Demo 4, then read the diff.

  • The bridge between the story and the map is a revamped setActive() function. Previously it only set an active class on a particular section based on scrolling position. Now it also finds the active marker, sets an active class, and eases the map to the marker’s location.
  • Map animation uses the easey library in the mapbox.js API, which implements animations and tweening between geographic locations. The API is dead simple—we pass it the lon,lat of the marker we want to animate to, and it handles the rest.
  • We disable all event handlers on our map by passing an empty array into Now the map can only be affected by the scrolling position. If users wanted to deviate from the storyline or explore London freeform, we could reintroduce event handlers—but in this case, less is more.

Displaying our fullscreen map together with text presents an interesting challenge: our map viewport should be offset to the right to account for our story on the left. The solution I’m using here is to expand our map viewport off canvas purely using CSS. You could use JavaScript, but as we’ll see later, a CSS-only approach gives us elegant ways to reapply and adjust this technique on mobile devices.

Using an off-canvas map width to offset the viewport center.

At this stage, our map and story complement each other nicely. Our map adds spatial context, visual intrigue, and an interesting temporal element as it eases between long and short distances.

Maps in responsive design

The tiled, continuous spatial plane represented by web maps is naturally well-suited to responsive design. Web maps handle different viewport sizes easily by showing a bit more or a bit less map. For our site, we adjust the layout of other elements slightly to fit smaller viewports.

Adding a responsive layout.
Tweaking layout with web maps. View Demo 5, then read the diff.

  • With less screen real estate, we hide non-active text sections and pin the active text to the top of the screen.
  • We use the bottom half of the screen for our map and use media queries to adjust the map’s center point to be three-fourths the height of the screen, using another version of our trick from Demo 4.

With a modest amount of planning and minimal adjustments, our Sherlock story is ready to be read on the go.

Solve your own case

If you’ve been following the code between these steps, you’ve probably noticed at least one or two things I haven’t covered, like the parameters of ease.optimal(), or how tooltips picked up on the title attribute of our GeoJSON data. The devil’s in the details, so post to this GitHub repository, where you will find the code and the design.

You should also check out:

  • The MapBox site, which includes an overview of tiling and basic web map concepts, and MapBox.js docs and code examples.
  • Leaflet, another powerful open source mapping library.
  • D3.js, a library for powering data-driven documents that has a broad range of applications, including mapping.

This example shows just one path to integrating web maps into your designs. Don’t stick to it. Break it apart. Make it your own. Do things that might be completely genius or utterly stupid. Even if they don’t work out, you’ll be taking ownership of maps as a designer—and owning something is the only way we’ll improve on it.

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For ideal typography, web designers need to know as much as possible about each user’s reading environment. That may seem obvious, but the act of specifying web typography is currently like ordering slices of pizza without knowing how large the slices are or what toppings they are covered with.

If someone asked me how many slices of pizza I wanted for lunch, I would probably say it depends on how large the slices are. Then—even if they told me that each slice was one eighth of a whole pie, or that they themselves were ordering two slices, or even that the slices were coming from Joe’s Pizza—any answer I might give would still be based on relative knowledge and inexact assumptions.

Such is the current situation with the physical presentation of responsive typography on the web. The information at a designer’s disposal for responsive design is virtually nonexistent outside the realm of software. Very little knowledge about the physical presentation of content is available to inform the design. The media query features of today can only relay a very fragmented view of the content’s actual presentation, and related terms from CSS are confusing if not downright misleading.

The immeasurable pachyderm

Among all the physical qualities of web typography, the elephant in the room is the issue of size. I’m not talking about em or rem or “reference pixels” ¹ or even device pixels. I’m talking about real, actual, physical, bona fide, measurable, size!

It’s ridiculous that we can send robots to Mars yet it’s still virtually impossible to render a glyph on a web page and say with confidence: “If you measure this glyph on your screen with a ruler, it will be exactly 10 millimeters wide.” Although actual physical size isn’t always the most important factor in web design, in some cases it is critical. For example, consider content for partially-sighted or low-vision readers: the ability to tweak designs according to physical sizes would enable designers to make conscious design decisions with much more sensitivity to how the type is actually being seen. And even where physical sizing is secondary to relative sizing, why shouldn’t we nevertheless be able to factor in physical size when establishing the relationships between different elements?

Physical considerations ≠ print design

I don’t believe web typography should be a screen-based imitation of print typography. One of the greatest benefits of web typography, and web design in general, is that it is flexible, adaptable, fluidly adjustable, without being locked into any one specific configuration. However(!), that doesn’t mean web designers should be forced to design without any means to address the issues of physical presentation. On the contrary, responsive design will not reach its full potential until it allows the ability to respond to the very important physical variables of digital media.

Please pardon the cliché, but when it comes to typography, on screens or otherwise, size matters. Physical size affects optical issues that change how the eye and brain process typographic images. Not surprisingly, typographers and typeface designers have been compensating for optical size-related issues as far back as Gutenberg.

You can’t expect a paragraph of type with the same relative line-height, column width, letter-spacing, and glyph proportions to function just as well on two different displays that have the same number of pixels but completely different physical sizes. It’s great that designers can adjust proportions between typographic elements if the canvas varies in relative size, but any such compensation is still based on guesswork and assumptions about the physical size of that canvas. When people disagree about the size or spacing of type on a website, there’s a very good chance that their opinions are based on completely different physical manifestations of the same content, even if their software and settings are identical.

Resolute resolution, absolute absolution

One of the most crucial factors in the size equation is resolution. And when I say resolution, I don’t just mean “how many pixels is this?”, or even “how many device pixels is this?”, but also “how large are these pixels?”

This is very different from the W3C’s “resolution” media feature in the current draft of the Media Queries Level 4 spec. You will note that the spec refers to resolution in terms of “CSS ‘inches’”—the quotes around “inches” are theirs, implying that they are not actually inches at all.

For an example of why physical resolution matters, imagine you are rendering text on a digital billboard with a physical resolution of one pixel per inch (1 PPI). Now imagine you are rendering the same text on a 200 PPI mobile device display. Even if you knew the actual number of device pixels that would be used to render your type (which itself is difficult to do with confidence these days), you would want to treat the two compositions very differently, both in terms of the typeface as well as typographic layout. The billboard type would likely require less space between letters. The letterforms themselves would benefit from narrower proportions, and could endure a higher ratio between thick and thin strokes. The type might even require different colors to optimize contrast at that size. These are all basics of typography and typeface design.

Unfortunately, in the current landscape of media query features, there is no way to know the difference between 16 device pixels on a crude LED billboard and 16 device pixels on a high-density mobile display. Heck, there isn’t even a reliable way to know if your type is 16 device pixels at all, regardless of how large the pixels are!

Pixels still rule, for better or worse

I know what some em-based enthusiasts might be thinking: “But you shouldn’t be specifying type sizes in pixel units to start with! All type sizes should be spec’d abstractly in relation to each other or a base font size!” However, in the current world of web typography, no matter what unit of measure you use to spec your onscreen type sizes—em, rem, px, pt, in, %, vh, or whatever else—at the end of the line, your specification is being mapped to pixels. Even if you leave the base size of your document to the defaults and specify everything else with em, there is still a base size which all other sizes will ultimately refer to, and it is defined in pixels.

This is because, currently, the only unit of measure that can be rendered onscreen by any operating system with absolute confidence is the lowly pixel. Until we have media query features that allow us to spec for situations like:

@media (physical-resolution: 1device-pixels-per-physical-inch) { … }


@media (device-width: 10physical-centimeters) { … }

… any compensation for physical size is based entirely on rough guesses about the devices our content will be presented on.²

It’s a complete fallacy that the official CSS spec allows so-called “absolute” units of measure like inches, points, and centimeters to be mapped to anything but actual physical units. Ironically, previous versions of CSS treated these things as you would hope and expect, but a change was made “because too much existing content relies on the assumption of 96dpi, and breaking that assumption breaks the content.” Call me idealistic if you will, but I am more of the mind that a spec should be written based on what is best for the future, not to cater to things that were made in the past.³

Getting physical

Any ability to leverage physical variables for web design will require a joint effort by several groups:

  • Device manufacturers will need to provide APIs that can inform the operating system—and, by extension, web browsers and web designers—of the actual physical properties of the hardware being used to present content to the user. Some device APIs are already beginning to show up in the world, but there is a long way to go before functionality and adoption are anywhere near dependable.
  • Standards organizations—the W3C in particular—will need to establish specifications for how to reference physical properties when formatting content. They will need to update (or at least augment) their existing “absolute” units of measure to be more meaningful, so they are more than just multipliers of sizeless pixels.
  • Software manufacturers will need to implement support for new specs relating to physical media features. Browsers are the most obvious software that will need to implement support, but the biggest challenge might be in getting native support for device APIs in operating system software.
  • Type manufacturers and type services will need to provide more diverse ranges of typefaces that have been optimized for a variety of physical properties. Ideally, many of the needed variations could even be provided on the fly using a broader approach to the ideas of font hinting.
  • Web designers and developers, last but not least, will need to build their sites to respond to physical properties, leveraging all variables to the benefit of their users.

Size and resolution are just the tip of the iceberg of physical variables that could be considered when improving web typography. Things like viewing distance, ambient light, display luminance, contrast ratio, black levels, etc., etc., could all be factored in to improve the reading experience. Even the ability to know some variables within the realm of software, like the user’s rendering engine or the presence of subpixel positioning, would go a long way toward helping web typographers design a better reading experience.

In the meantime, I’d love to see more of the players mentioned above start to at least experiment with what’s possible when physical features can be specified, detected, and factored into responsive designs in structured, meaningful, and predictable ways. Until we can do that, we’re all just ordering pizza without knowing exactly what will end up on our plate.

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Many of us care deeply about developing our craft. But staying up to date can be a true challenge, because the quantity of fresh information we’re regularly exposed to can be a lot to take in. 2012 has been no exception, with a wealth of evolution and refinement going on in the front end.

Great strides have been made in how we approach workflow, use abstractions, appreciate code quality and tackle the measurement and betterment of performance. If you’ve been busy and haven’t had time to catch up on the latest developments in these areas, don’t worry.

With the holiday season upon us and a little more time on our hands, I thought it would be useful to share a carefully curated list of the most relevant front-end talks I’ve found helpful this year. You certainly don’t have to read through them all, but the advice shared in them will equip you with the knowledge needed to go into the new year as a better front-end engineer.

Image credit: Jacob Bøtter


Have a Strategy for Staying Up to Date

How to Stay Up to Date on Web Stuff, Chris Coyier

Part of continually developing your craft is staying up to date. Doing this is important for all professionals, and in this talk you’ll learn strategies for staying updated even when the ideas that surround the technologies we use are constantly evolving.


Make Sure Your Baseline for Development Is Current

A New Baseline for Front-End Developers, Rebecca Murphey

There was a time when editing files, testing them locally and simply FTP’ing them was the common workflow for a front-end developer. We would measure our abilities based on how well we could harass IE 6 into rendering pages correctly, and we generally lacked strong skills in HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

This has greatly changed over the past few years, with improvements in workflow and tooling. Front-end development is now taken more seriously, and this talk sheds light on the new baseline process for developing on the front end.


Understand How Browsers Work Behind the Scenes

So, You Want to Be a Front-End Engineer, David Mosher (Video)

Some would say that the browser is the most volatile development platform the world has ever known. If you’re a client-side developer, understanding how browser internals work can help you both make better decisions and appreciate the justifications behind many development best practices. In one of the best talks this year, David Mosher takes you through how browsers parse and render your pages.


Know What the Web Platform Now Has to Offer

The Web Can Do That!?, Eric Bidelman (Video)

The Web is constantly evolving, and keeping up with what’s new on the platform can be hard. HTML5’s new capabilities enable us to build an entirely new suite of applications with features that were simply impossible to achieve before (at least, not without the use of plugins) but are now a reality.

In this talk, my teammate Eric guides you through the bleeding edge of HTML5, focusing on solving many real-world problems. You’ll learn about media streaming, device input, modern CSS design, media capture, file I/O and more.



For Web App Developers

Tooling for the Modern Web App Developer, Addy Osmani

Whether you’re using JavaScript or CoffeeScript, LESS or Sass, building an awesome Web application these days usually requires a plethora of boilerplates, frameworks and tools and a lot of glue to get them to work together. In short, you need a kick-ass utility belt.

In this talk, you’ll get an overview of the current tooling eco-system for the front-end and learn about a new tool that tries to bring together all of the pieces of this eco-system for you, called Yeoman.


An extended version of this talk is also available.

For Web Designers

A Modern Web Designer’s Workflow, Chris Coyier (Video)

A lot is expected from today’s Web designers. If this role defines what you do, then it’s now not just about visual design, but increasingly about building interactions. Designs need to work across different devices of varying shapes, sizes and connections, and they also need to be accessible.

As a designer, you often need to communicate and share code across teams and be familiar with many different technologies. In this talk, Chris Coyier discusses many of the amazing tools that can help things along, discussing what does what and giving a high-level view of a modern workflow.


For Mobile Web Developers

Mobile Web Developers Toolbelt, Pete Le Page (Video)

Building for the mobile Web requires a different mindset to the one we use when developing for desktop, and a different set of tools. Thankfully, a number of great options are available. From remote debugging to emulation, mobile browsers are offering more and more tools to make our lives easier.

In this talk, Pete Le Page takes you through a couple of tools that you can use today to make cross-platform mobile Web development easier, and then he peers into the crystal ball to see what tools the future may bring.


For Debugging

Secrets of the Chrome DevTools, Patrick Dubroy (Video)

Google Chrome Developer Tools provide powerful ways to understand, debug and profile Web applications. Most developers are familiar with Chrome’s basic inspection and debugging tools, but some of its most valuable features, like the Timeline and memory analysis tools, are less known.

In his demo-based walkthrough, Patrick Dubroy provides an overview of Chrome Developer Tools and an in-depth demonstration of some lesser-known features.


The Future


The CSS of Tomorrow, Peter Gasston

In this talk, Peter looks briefly at the state of CSS3: what you can do right now, and what you’ll be able to do in the very near future. He then looks into the long-term future, to a time when CSS3 will make possible page layouts far richer and more dynamic than we’d thought possible, and when CSS3 has taken on aspects of programming languages. This is effectively what CSS developers will be learning years from now.



The Future of JavaScript, Dave Herman

The Web platform is growing, and JavaScript is growing along with it. EcmaScript 6, the next edition of the JavaScript standard, is gearing up to be a huge step forward for Web programming. In this talk, Dave Herman discusses the exciting new features being worked on for EcmaScript 6 and how they can be used.


Web Applications

Web Components and the Future of Web App Development, Eric Bidelman

Web components are going to fundamentally change the way we think, build and consume Web apps. ShadowDOM, Mutation Observers, custom elements, MDV, Object.observe(), CSS — how do they all fit together?

This talk prepares you for the future of the Web platform by discussing the fundamentals of Web components and how we can use them today with frameworks such as AngularJS.



State of the Art

All the New CSS Hawtness, Darcy Clarke

This talk dives into some of the latest CSS implementations and specifications floating around. You’ll learn what’s here and what’s around the corner, and you’ll gain insight into why these new features will change our development workflow.

Darcy Clarke touches on modules such as paged-media, multi-columns, flex-box, filters, regions, box-sizing, masking and 3D.



Your CSS Is a Mess, Jonathan Snook

We all think that CSS is easy. Take some selectors, add some properties, maybe a dash of media queries, and — presto! — you have a beautiful website. And yet, as the project changes and the team grows, we see the frustration build, with increasingly complex selectors and overuse of !important.

In this talk, Jonathan looks at common problems and solutions that will make your CSS (and your projects) easier to manage and easier to scale.



CSS Pre-Processors, Bermon Painter

If you haven’t jumped on the pre-processor train this year, you’re missing out. In this helpful overview of (current) popular pre-processors, Bermon Painter takes you through Stylus, LESS and Sass, with features subdivided into easy-to-learn sections of beginner, intermediate and advanced. I’ve been using mixins quite heavily this year, and I simply wouldn’t have been able to if it weren’t for projects like Sass.



A Better Future With KSS, Kyle Neath

Writing maintainable CSS within a team is one of those problems that a lot of people think can be solved by writing CSS in a particular style. But in Kyle’s experience, that never works out.

In this talk, he introduces you to his latest creation, KSS. It’s a documentation and style guide format. He’ll show you why he built KSS and how it’s been helping him at GitHub to refactor its four-and-a-half year old CSS, and he’ll give you a glimpse into the future of KSS.



The Importance of Code Style

Maintainable JavaScript, Nicholas Zakas

Some say that good code is its own documentation, and the fact is that the more readable our code is, the easier it is to maintain.

Writing JavaScript for fun and writing it professionally are two different things, and in this talk by Zakas, you’ll learn practices to make JavaScript maintainable over the long run, to reduce errors and to make your code easily adaptable to future changes. It’s highly recommended reading.


A Modern Large-Scale App Stack

SoundCloud’s Stack, Nick Fisher

I’ve talked a lot about large-scale development in the past. It’s a non-trivial problem that’s difficult to get right, and so it’s exciting when someone working on such challenges shares their experience.

In this talk, Nick Fisher of SoundCloud discusses the company’s story of developing large-scale applications with JavaScript, not only at runtime, but also its steps to make development and deployment easier. In particular, he looks at RequireJS and Backbone, talking about how SoundCloud has used and abused each to suit its needs, sometimes in uncommon ways.


Rethinking Application Structure

Re-Imagining the Browser With AngularJS, Igor Minar

What if you could a write modern Web app with dramatically fewer lines of code and improve its readability and expressiveness at the same time? In case you’re wondering: no, there’s no new language to learn, just familiar old HTML and JavaScript. As a matter of fact, there are concepts for you to unlearn.

AngularJS is a client-side JavaScript Web development framework whose authors believe they’ve done something special. Instead of asking what kind of functions they could provide to make writing apps smoother, they asked, “What if the browser worked differently in a way that eliminates code and gives structure to apps?”

In this talk, you’ll get a tour of how to get the power of tomorrow’s Web platform in today’s Web applications.


Internationalization and i18n

Entschuldigen you, parlez vouz JavaScript, Sebastian Golasch (Video)

While JavaScript applications grow in size and complexity, there are still some white spots on the big map of Web applications: internationalization and globalization! If you´re still thinking that switching strings in and out is the way to go, you are definitely headed in the wrong direction.

In this talk, Sebastian takes you through how to spot real-world internationalization problems and how to solve them in the most elegant way.


I couldn’t cover internationalization without mentioning Alex Sexton, who has also spoken a great deal on this topic. His JSConf talk on client-side internationalization is available in video form if you’re interested in checking it out.

Patterns and Principles

The Plight of Pinocchio, Brandon Keepers

JavaScript is no longer a toy language, and many of our Web applications can’t function without it. Brandon states that if we are going to use JavaScript to do real things, then we need to treat it like a real language, adopting the same practices that we use with real languages. I completely agree with him.

This framework-agnostic talk takes a serious look at how we develop JavaScript applications in the real world. Despite their prototypical nature, good object-oriented programming principles are still relevant. The design patterns that we’ve grown to know and love work just as well in JavaScript as they do in any other language.


When to Lazy Load Scripts

How Late Is Later?, Massimiliano Marcon

Reducing the loading time of a Web application is a well-known challenge. Developers need to make sure that the browser downloads only the code that is strictly necessary to bootstrap the application, and leave the rest for later. This is what we commonly call “lazy loading.”

But when is “later”? When is the right time to lazy load? This talk shows how JavaScript code — functions and objects — can be delivered to the browser on demand, thus reducing the perceived loading time of a Web application.



Building Touch-Based Interfaces

Creating Responsive HTML5 Touch Interfaces, Stephen Woods (Video | Audio)

Flickr front-end engineer Stephen Woods shares some hard-learned lessons about building responsive touch-based interfaces using HTML5 and CSS. Because our users are demanding better instant feedback from touch-based UIs, understanding how to approach this problem and avoid the pitfalls will be critical for many application developers in the future.


The Challenge With Scrolling

Embracing Touch: Cross-Platform Scrolling, Mark Dalgleish (Video)

Scrolling effects are a popular way to add personality to the simple act of moving down the page. Unfortunately, these effects don’t work natively on mobile devices, where the touch interaction would make these techniques more effective. In this talk, Mark looks at some ways to implement these effects within the limitations of mobile browsers.


Native, HTML5 and Hybrid Apps

Native, HTML5 and Hybrid Mobile Development, Eran Zinman

One of the toughest decisions every mobile developer faces is choosing a development strategy: “Should I develop a native, HTML5 or hybrid mobile app?” Over the past two years, Eran has led Conduit’s mobile client development efforts, experimenting with cross-platform development in various flavors: from complete HTML5 solutions (using PhoneGap and other technologies) to hybrid solutions to semi-hybrid solutions to fully native solutions.

In this talk, Eran shares some real-life experiences in cross-platform development, describing changes that Conduit has implemented along the way, and sharing what some of the “big players” (such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter) are doing in their mobile app development.


Performance, Distribution and Facebook on HTML5

On the Future of Mobile Web Apps, Simon Cross

Simon looks at Facebook’s experience with and investment in the mobile Web, the issues affecting mobile Web developers and what Facebook and the industry are doing to push the mobile Web forward. Mark Zuckerberg’s comments on HTML5 were undoubtedly one of the most discussed topics in mobile this year, and I personally found these slides a good summary of Facebook’s current take on what works and what still requires improvement.


Tools for Mobile Debugging

Mobile Debugging, Remy Sharp

Debugging Web apps on mobile devices can be a genuine pain. Luckily, a number of tools are available today to ease the process. From remote debuggers to cross-device consoles, this talk summarizes the current state of debugging for mobile, going into more depth on debugging than Pete’s talk from earlier in the post.


Responsive Design Techniques

Responsive Web Design: Clever Tips and Techniques, Vitaly Friedman

Responsive Web design challenges designers to apply a new mindset to their design processes and to the techniques they use in design and coding. This talk (by Smashing Magazine’s own Vitaly Friedman) provides an overview of various practical techniques, tips and tricks that you might want to be aware of when working on a new responsive design project.


Web Apps

Offline Web Apps

Offline Rules, Andrew Betts (Video)

In the last couple of years, a deluge of new offline storage technologies have appeared. In this talk, Andrew looks at why they are all excellent and rubbish at the same time and why you need to use all of them, and he walks through techniques to consider when building a Web application that can load and function with no network connectivity.

But making use of client-side storage is necessary not only in order to make an app that works offline, but it can also hugely improve the experience of your website when the user actually does have connectivity.


State of the Art

Building Web Apps of the Future: Tomorrow, Today and Yesterday, Paul Kinlan (Audio)

The browser is an amazing runtime that can already deliver amazing apps. Paul dives into the technologies that will help you deliver Web apps that will blow your users’ socks off now and in the future.


Client-Side Storage

Storage in the Browser, Andrew Betts

Installed native applications can use all the space they want, but in the browser we’re much more limited. This talk explores how to make the best use of the storage technologies available to Web apps, comparing the virtues of different packaging and encoding techniques, and covering simple forms of in-browser compression that can yield surprising results.

As more apps are developed to surf over network turbulence, and to work even when completely disconnected from the network, local storage becomes ever more important.


Application Cache

Application Cache: Douchebag, Jake Archibald (Video)

The Application Cache is one of the cool bits of HTML5. It allows websites to work without a network connection, and it brings us much closer to native app-like behavior. However, from roundup articles and talks about HTML5, you might be left with the impression that it’s a magic bullet. Unfortunately, it isn’t; the Application Cache is, as Jake famously puts it, a douchebag.

In this talk, he looks at how to use the features of Application Cache without the horrible side effects, comparing techniques that you’d use for both a simple client-side app and a large content-driven website. He explores the many gotchas left out of most articles about Application Cache and discusses how to build your website to survive them.




High-Performance CSS, Paul Irish

Paul dives into the tools available in and outside of the browser to assess the performance of your CSS. Find out what’s slow (is box-shadow causing paints to be 70 milliseconds longer?) and how to fix it. Learn about about:tracing, CSS profiling and speed tracer, and get a better understanding of the browser’s internals in the process.


There’s also Jon Rohan’s talk about some problems related to CSS performance that were solved at GitHub. Recommended reading.

GitHub’s CSS Performance, Jon Rohan


Avoiding Jank

Jank-Free: In Pursuit of Smooth Web Apps, Tom Wiltzius

Building beautiful experiences on the mobile Web takes more than a good designer and fancy CSS: performance is critical for a Web app to feel fluid. Smooth animation that never drops a frame can give your app a native feel. But when animations stutter, effects lag or pages scroll slowly, we call that “jank.” This talk is about identifying jank and getting rid of it.



Building Faster Websites, Ilya Grigorik

In this comprehensive crash course, Ilya Grigorik shares some really juicy tips on how to make the Web faster, including Google’s findings on what slows down people’s Web experience and how Chrome and other services have improved it. If you’re an engineer looking to improve the performance of your websites or apps, this talk comes highly recommended.



Breaking the JavaScript Speed Limit With V8, Daniel Clifford

Are you interested in making JavaScript run blazingly fast? If so, this talk looks at V8 under the hood to help you identify how to optimize your JavaScript. Daniel shows you how to leverage V8’s sampling profiler to eliminate performance bottlenecks and optimize JavaScript programs. He also exposes how V8 uses hidden classes and runtime-type feedback to generate efficient JIT code. A very interesting talk for performance junkies.


Note: Some of the optimizations mentioned in this talk are specific to V8 and may not apply to other JavaScript engines. I wrote about how to write memory-efficient JavaScript on Smashing Magazine recently, in case you’re interested in exploring the topic further.


Understanding Code Smells

Why Our Code Smells, Brandon Keepers (Video)

Odors exist for a reason, and they are usually trying to tell us something. If our code smells, it might be trying to tell us what is wrong.

Does a test case require an abundance of setting up? Maybe the code being tested is doing too much, or it is not isolated enough for the test? Does an object have an abundance of instance variables? Maybe it should be split into multiple objects? Is a view brittle? Maybe it is too tightly coupled to a model, or maybe the logic needs to be abstracted into an object that can be tested?

In this talk, Brandon walks through code from projects that he works on every day, looking for smells that indicate problems, understanding why the smells are there, what the smells are trying to tell us, and how to refactor them.


Current State of the Art

JavaScript Testing: The Holy Grail, Adam Hawkins (Video)

Adam talks about this Holy Grail for JavaScript developers: getting a test suite up and running fast and having multiple browsers execute the tests. Getting the Holy Grail is difficult, though, even though several tools have been created in the past in attempts to solve this problem.

Barriers to entries are everywhere. How easy is it to get going testing small parts of JavaScript functionality? What happens as your become bigger and more complex? What about headless testing? Does this process scale up to CI? Can you even do this stuff locally?

A myriad of testing tools and solutions are available, and Adam shows what’s out there and what we as a community need to do next to get the Holy Grail, to ensure a better Web experience for everyone.


Tip: One tool for testing that I’m loving at the moment is Testling-CI, which runs browser tests on every push.

Improving the Testability of Your Code

Writing Testable JavaScript, Rebecca Murphey (Audio)

It’s one thing to write the code that you need to write to get something working; quite another to write the code that you need to write to prove that it works — and to prove that it will continue to work as you refactor and add new features.

In her talk, Rebecca looks at what it means to write testable JavaScript code.



Time spent thinking about (and developing) your craft is time well spent. The more honed your skills are, the more opportunity you will have to become an efficient engineer.

While this list doesn’t cover every excellent talk presented this year, it hopefully offers some direction for you to accentuate your skills. Do consider reading through a few of them. Focused reading in this way will add to your value as a craftsperson and hopefully improve your daily development workflow.

With that, do enjoy the holiday season and have a fantastic new year.


© Addy Osmani for Smashing Magazine, 2012.

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