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Kevin Cornell

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Jeremy Keith notes that what happens between the breakpoints is just as important as the breakpoints themselves—perhaps even more so. While I agree with this, we do have to start somewhere. In a way, this part of the process reminds me of storyboarding, or creating animation keyframes, with the in-between frames being developed later. We’re going to do that here.

Major breakpoints are conditions that, when met, trigger major changes in your design. A major breakpoint might be, for example, where your entire layout must change from two columns to four.

Let’s say you’ve chosen three basic design directions from your thumbnails. Think about what your major breakpoints will look like (Figure 7.6). And here’s the key: try to come up with as few major breakpoints as possible. That might sound crazy, since we’re talking about responsive design. After all, we have media queries, so let’s use about 12 of them, right? No! If a linear layout works for every screen and is appropriate for your particular concept, then there’s no need for different layouts. In that case, simply describe what will happen when the screen gets larger. Will everything generally stay the same, with changes only to font size, line height and margins? If so, sketch those. For these variations, make thumbnails first, explore some options, and then move on to larger, more detailed sketches. Use your breakpoint graph as a guide at first and make sketches according to the breakpoints you’ve estimated on your graph.

When thinking about major breakpoints, remember to think about device classes. If you’re thinking about smartphones, tablets, laptops/desktops, TVs, and game consoles, for example, you’re heading in the right direction. If you’re thinking in terms of brand names and specific operating systems, you’re on the wrong track. The idea is to think in terms of general device classifications and, sometimes, device capabilities. Capabilities are more important when designing web applications, since you should be thinking about what screens will look like both with and without any particular capability.

Rough sketches of major breakpoints can help you determine:

Rough sketches are more detailed than thumbnails, but they shouldn’t take a long time to create. In a short period, you should have a sketch of each major breakpoint for each of your chosen designs. This should be enough to decide on one of the designs.

  • Whether or not more major breakpoints are needed
  • Which design choice will be the most labor intensive; you might opt for a design that will better fit within time and budget constraints
  • Whether or not a particular device class has been neglected or needs further consideration
  • What technologies you’ll need to develop the design responsively


Figure 7.6: Most websites need very few major breakpoints.

Minor breakpoints are conditions that, when met, trigger small changes in your design. An example would be moving form labels from above text fields to the left of those fields, while the rest of the design remains the same.

So where and when will you sketch minor breakpoints? In the browser, when you do your web-based mockup. You’ll find out why and how in the next chapter. In the meantime, simply focus on making sketches of the state of your web pages or app screens at the major breakpoints of each design.

At this point, don’t worry too much if you notice that the initial breakpoints on your breakpoint graph simply won’t do. Those were just a starting point, and you’re free to revise your estimate based on your sketches. You might even decide that you need an extra breakpoint for a given design and record that in sketch form; you can add that breakpoint to your graph. This is a cycle of discovery, learning, and revision.

Think about your content while sketching

While sketching, you’ll certainly be thinking about the way things should look. My experience is that much UI sketching of this type revolves around the layout of elements on the screen. I’ve found it useful to keep thinking about the content while sketching, and to consider what will happen to the content in various situations. When designing responsively, it can be useful to consider how you’ll handle the following content in particular:

  • Text
  • Navigation
  • Tables

Oh, sure, there are many more things to consider, and you’ll end up creating your own list of “things to do some extra thinking about” as the project progresses. For now, let’s take a look at the items listed above.

Text

Before you say, “Hey, wait a minute, didn’t you just tell me that I didn’t have to draw text while sketching?” hear me out. While sketching, there are a couple of text-related issues you’ll need to tackle: column width and text size, both of which are relevant in proportion to the screen and the other elements on the page.

Column width is fairly obvious, but it can be difficult to estimate how wide a column will be with actual text. In this case, sketching on a device might give you a better idea of the actual space you have to work with. Another method I’ve used is just to make a simple HTML page that contains only text, and load that into a device’s browser (or even an emulator, which while not optimal still gives a more realistic impression than lines on paper). When the text seems too large or too small, you can adjust the font size accordingly. Once it seems right, you’ll be able to make your sketches a bit more realistic.

Note: Distinguish between touchability and clickability. Many designers, myself included, have made the mistake of refining links for people who click on them using a mouse, or even via the keyboard, without considering how touchable these links are for people on touch devices.

Think about the size of links—not only the text size, but also the amount of space around them. Both of these factors play a role in the touchability or clickability of links (and buttons): large links and buttons are easier targets, but slightly smaller links with plenty of space around them can work just as well. That said, there’s a decent chance that no matter what you choose to sketch, you’ll end up making changes again when you create your mockups.

This is the great thing about sketching that I can’t repeat often enough: you’re going to refine your design in the browser anyway, so the speed with which you can try things out when sketching means you won’t have to do detail work more than once (unless your client has changes, but we all know that never happens).

Navigation

Navigation is another poster child for sketching on actual devices. The size issues are the same as with links, but there’s a lot more thinking to do in terms of the design of navigation for various devices, which means navigation might change significantly at each major breakpoint.

Think back to Bryan Rieger’s practice of designing in text first, and ponder what you would do before the very first breakpoint if you had only plain HTML and CSS at your disposal—in other words, if you had no JavaScript. That means no, you can’t have your menu collapsed at the top of the screen and have it drop down when someone touches it. If you have your menu at the top, it’s in its expanded form and takes up all the vertical space it normally would.

This is a controversial enough subject, with even accessibility gurus in disagreement: JavaScript, after all, is currently considered an “accessibility supported” technology. But this isn’t necessarily about accessibility. It’s about thinking about what happens when a browser lacks JavaScript support, or if the JavaScript available on the device is different than what you’d expect. Your content will be presented in a certain way before JavaScript does its thing with it, no matter what the browser. So why not think about what that initial state will be?

In the chapter on wireframes, I talked about my preferred pattern for navigation on the smallest screens: keep it near the bottom of the screen and place a link to that navigation near the top of the screen. JavaScript, when available and working as expected, can move that navigation up to the top and create the drop-down menu on the fly.

But a pattern is not design law, so how you choose to handle the smallest screens will depend on your project. If I had only a few links in my navigation, I might very well put the menu at the top from the very start, and there it would stay at every breakpoint.

Remember that JavaScript and CSS let you do a lot of rearranging of stuff on the screen. That knowledge should empower you to safely design a great page with plain HTML and use JavaScript and CSS to spice it up any way you like. This is the essence of progressive enhancement.

Tables

Tables! Oh, the bane of the responsive designer (or wait, is that images? Or video? Or layout? Ahem). Tables are tough to deal with on small screens. I’d love to tell you I have all the answers, but instead I have more questions. Hopefully, these will lead you to a solution. It’s good to think about these while you’re sketching.

First of all, what types of tables will you be dealing with? Narrow? Wide? Numerical? Textual? Your content inventory should give you enough information to answer these simple questions. Once you’ve considered those, try to categorize the types of tables you have into something like the following classes (Figure 7.7):

  • Small-screen-friendly tables, which you’ll probably leave as they are, because they’re small enough and will work fine on most small screens.
  • Blockable tables, which you can alter with CSS so that each row in the table functions visually as a block item in a list (Figure 7.8).
  • Chartable tables, which contain numerical data that can be transformed into a chart, graph, or other visualization that will take up less space on a small screen.
  • Difficult tables, which are hard enough to deal with that you’ll need to come up with a different plan for them, sometimes even on a case-by-case basis. These are our enemies, but unfortunately, are the friends of our clients, who all love Microsoft Excel. Oh well.


Figure 7.7: There are several different types of tables, and different ways of dealing with them on small screens. (Sources: mobilism.nl and eu-verantwoording.nl)


Figure 7.8: One way of dealing with small screen tables is to treat each row as a block.

Thinking again in terms of progressive enhancement, the base design should probably just include the whole table, which means that the user will have to scroll horizontally to see the whole thing in many cases. On top of this, we can employ CSS and JavaScript, when they’re available, to do some magic for us. Blockable and chartable tables can be blocked with CSS and charted with JavaScript. Plenty of designers and developers have experimented with many different options for tables, from simply making the table itself scrollable to exchanging columns and rows.

The fun part is that what you do on small screens isn’t necessarily what you’ll do on larger screens. That’s why now—when all you have to do is sketch and it won’t take much time—is the time to think about the changes you’ll be making at each breakpoint.

What to do if you get stuck

Every designer gets stuck at some point. It’s no big deal unless you treat it like one. There are countless ways to deal with it, from asking yourself what if questions (“What if it weren’t a table, but a list?” is what I asked myself before “blockifying” the attendees table for the Mobilism site) to the cliché taking a shower, which you hopefully do on a regular basis anyway. The reason this chapter focuses so much on sketching is because the act of drawing itself can actually stimulate your brain to come up with more ideas, provided you push it hard enough by sketching past your comfort zone of first-come ideas.

If your problem is that you’re stuck creatively, there are many inspiring books and resources to get your creative engine started during the bitter cold of designer’s block. Although there are plenty of resources on design and creativity itself (try such classics as Edward de Bono’s Lateral Thinking), the greatest inspiration can come from sources outside the realm of design.1 Trying to combine things that normally aren’t combined can lead to surprising results. It’s a simple little trick, but I’ve often used Brian Eno and Peter Schmidt’s Oblique Strategies to force me to take a different approach.2 Worst case, it’s a lot of fun. Best case, you’ve got a great idea!

If your problem is that you’re not sure how to handle something in the context of responsive design, there’s no harm in researching how others have solved problems like yours. Just be sure to use your creativity and tailor any ideas you might find to your own situation; after all, you’re a designer. At the time of this writing I find Brad Frost’s This Is Responsive to be one of the most exhaustive collections of responsive design patterns and resources available.3 You can spend hours going through there and you’ll certainly come across something that will get you unstuck.

Excerpted from Responsive Design Workflow by Stephen Hay. Copyright © 2013.
Used with permission of Pearson Education, Inc. and New Riders.

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Three years ago in these pages, ALA technical editor Ethan Marcotte fired the shot heard ’round the web. ALA designer Mike Pick thought it might be fun to celebrate the third anniversary of “Responsive Web Design” (A List Apart Issue No. 306, May 25, 2010) by secreting an Easter Egg in the original article; our illustrator, Kevin Cornell, rose to the challenge.

To see it in action, visit alistapart.com/article/responsive-web-design, grab the edge of the browser window (device permitting), and perform the responsive resize mambo. (ALA’s Tim Murtaugh, who coded the Easter Egg, has provided a handy video demo of what you’ll see.)

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We’ve all been there: that bit of JavaScript functionality that started out as just a handful of lines grows to a dozen, then two dozen, then more. Along the way, a function picks up a few more arguments; a conditional picks up a few more conditions. And then one day, the bug report comes in: something’s broken, and it’s up to us to untangle the mess.

As we ask our client-side code to take on more and more responsibilities—indeed, whole applications are living largely in the browser these days—two things are becoming clear. One, we can’t just point and click our way through testing that things are working as we expect; automated tests are key to having confidence in our code. Two, we’re probably going to have to change how we write our code in order to make it possible to write tests.

Really, we need to change how we code? Yes—because even if we know that automated tests are a good thing, most of us are probably only able to write integration tests right now. Integration tests are valuable because they focus on how the pieces of an application work together, but what they don’t do is tell us whether individual units of functionality are behaving as expected.

That’s where unit testing comes in. And we’ll have a very hard time writing unit tests until we start writing testable JavaScript.

Unit vs. integration: what’s the difference?

Writing integration tests is usually fairly straightforward: we simply write code that describes how a user interacts with our app, and what the user should expect to see as she does. Selenium is a popular tool for automating browsers. Capybara for Ruby makes it easy to talk to Selenium, and there are plenty of tools for other languages, too.

Here’s an integration test for a portion of a search app:

def test_search
  fill_in('q', :with => 'cat')
  find('.btn').click
  assert( find('#results li').has_content?('cat'), 'Search results are shown' )
  assert( page.has_no_selector?('#results li.no-results'), 'No results is not shown' )
end

Whereas an integration test is interested in a user’s interaction with an app, a unit test is narrowly focused on a small piece of code:

When I call a function with a certain input, do I receive the expected output?

Apps that are written in a traditional procedural style can be very difficult to unit test—and difficult to maintain, debug, and extend, too. But if we write our code with our future unit testing needs in mind, we will not only find that writing the tests becomes more straightforward than we might have expected, but also that we’ll simply write better code, too.

To see what I’m talking about, let’s take a look at a simple search app:

Srchr

When a user enters a search term, the app sends an XHR to the server for the corresponding data. When the server responds with the data, formatted as JSON, the app takes that data and displays it on the page, using client-side templating. A user can click on a search result to indicate that he “likes” it; when this happens, the name of the person he liked is added to the “Liked” list on the right-hand side.

A “traditional” JavaScript implementation of this app might look like this:

var tmplCache = {};

function loadTemplate (name) {
  if (!tmplCache[name]) {
    tmplCache[name] = $.get('/templates/' + name);
  }
  return tmplCache[name];
}

$(function () {

  var resultsList = $('#results');
  var liked = $('#liked');
  var pending = false;

  $('#searchForm').on('submit', function (e) {
    e.preventDefault();

    if (pending) { return; }

    var form = $(this);
    var query = $.trim( form.find('input[name="q"]').val() );

    if (!query) { return; }

    pending = true;

    $.ajax('/data/search.json', {
      data : { q: query },
      dataType : 'json',
      success : function (data) {
        loadTemplate('people-detailed.tmpl').then(function (t) {
          var tmpl = _.template(t);
          resultsList.html( tmpl({ people : data.results }) );
          pending = false;
        });
      }
    });

    $('<li>', {
      'class' : 'pending',
      html : 'Searching &hellip;'
    }).appendTo( resultsList.empty() );
  });

  resultsList.on('click', '.like', function (e) {
    e.preventDefault();
    var name = $(this).closest('li').find('h2').text();
    liked.find('.no-results').remove();
    $('<li>', { text: name }).appendTo(liked);
  });

});

My friend Adam Sontag calls this Choose Your Own Adventure code—on any given line, we might be dealing with presentation, or data, or user interaction, or application state. Who knows! It’s easy enough to write integration tests for this kind of code, but it’s hard to test individual units of functionality.

What makes it hard? Four things:

  • A general lack of structure; almost everything happens in a $(document).ready() callback, and then in anonymous functions that can’t be tested because they aren’t exposed.
  • Complex functions; if a function is more than 10 lines, like the submit handler, it’s highly likely that it’s doing too much.
  • Hidden or shared state; for example, since pending is in a closure, there’s no way to test whether the pending state is set correctly.
  • Tight coupling; for example, a $.ajax success handler shouldn’t need direct access to the DOM.

Organizing our code

The first step toward solving this is to take a less tangled approach to our code, breaking it up into a few different areas of responsibility:

  • Presentation and interaction
  • Data management and persistence
  • Overall application state
  • Setup and glue code to make the pieces work together

In the “traditional” implementation shown above, these four categories are intermingled—on one line we’re dealing with presentation, and two lines later we might be communicating with the server.

Code Lines

While we can absolutely write integration tests for this code—and we should!—writing unit tests for it is pretty difficult. In our functional tests, we can make assertions such as “when a user searches for something, she should see the appropriate results,” but we can’t get much more specific. If something goes wrong, we’ll have to track down exactly where it went wrong, and our functional tests won’t help much with that.

If we rethink how we write our code, though, we can write unit tests that will give us better insight into where things went wrong, and also help us end up with code that’s easier to reuse, maintain, and extend.

Our new code will follow a few guiding principles:

  • Represent each distinct piece of behavior as a separate object that falls into one of the four areas of responsibility and doesn’t need to know about other objects. This will help us avoid creating tangled code.
  • Support configurability, rather than hard-coding things. This will prevent us from replicating our entire HTML environment in order to write our tests.
  • Keep our objects’ methods simple and brief. This will help us keep our tests simple and our code easy to read.
  • Use constructor functions to create instances of objects. This will make it possible to create “clean” copies of each piece of code for the sake of testing.

To start with, we need to figure out how we’ll break our application into different pieces. We’ll have three pieces dedicated to presentation and interaction: the Search Form, the Search Results, and the Likes Box.

Application Views

We’ll also have a piece dedicated to fetching data from the server and a piece dedicated to gluing everything together.

Let’s start by looking at one of the simplest pieces of our application: the Likes Box. In the original version of the app, this code was responsible for updating the Likes Box:

var liked = $('#liked');

var resultsList = $('#results');


// ...


resultsList.on('click', '.like', function (e) {
  e.preventDefault();

  var name = $(this).closest('li').find('h2').text();

  liked.find( '.no-results' ).remove();

  $('<li>', { text: name }).appendTo(liked);

});

The Search Results piece is completely intertwined with the Likes Box piece and needs to know a lot about its markup. A much better and more testable approach would be to create a Likes Box object that’s responsible for manipulating the DOM related to the Likes Box:

var Likes = function (el) {
  this.el = $(el);
  return this;
};

Likes.prototype.add = function (name) {
  this.el.find('.no-results').remove();
  $('<li>', { text: name }).appendTo(this.el);
};

This code provides a constructor function that creates a new instance of a Likes Box. The instance that’s created has an .add() method, which we can use to add new results. We can write a couple of tests to prove that it works:

var ul;

setup(function(){
  ul = $('<ul><li class="no-results"></li></ul>');
});

test('constructor', function () {
  var l = new Likes(ul);
  assert(l);
});

test('adding a name', function () {
  var l = new Likes(ul);
  l.add('Brendan Eich');

  assert.equal(ul.find('li').length, 1);
  assert.equal(ul.find('li').first().html(), 'Brendan Eich');
  assert.equal(ul.find('li.no-results').length, 0);
});

Not so hard, is it? Here we’re using Mocha as the test framework, and Chai as the assertion library. Mocha provides the test and setup functions; Chai provides assert. There are plenty of other test frameworks and assertion libraries to choose from, but for the sake of an introduction, I find these two work well. You should find the one that works best for you and your project—aside from Mocha, QUnit is popular, and Intern is a new framework that shows a lot of promise.

Our test code starts out by creating an element that we’ll use as the container for our Likes Box. Then, it runs two tests: one is a sanity check to make sure we can make a Likes Box; the other is a test to ensure that our .add() method has the desired effect. With these tests in place, we can safely refactor the code for our Likes Box, and be confident that we’ll know if we break anything.

Our new application code can now look like this:

var liked = new Likes('#liked');
var resultsList = $('#results');



// ...



resultsList.on('click', '.like', function (e) {
  e.preventDefault();

  var name = $(this).closest('li').find('h2').text();

  liked.add(name);
});

The Search Results piece is more complex than the Likes Box, but let’s take a stab at refactoring that, too. Just as we created an .add() method on the Likes Box, we also want to create methods for interacting with the Search Results. We’ll want a way to add new results, as well as a way to “broadcast” to the rest of the app when things happen within the Search Results—for example, when someone likes a result.

var SearchResults = function (el) {
  this.el = $(el);
  this.el.on( 'click', '.btn.like', _.bind(this._handleClick, this) );
};

SearchResults.prototype.setResults = function (results) {
  var templateRequest = $.get('people-detailed.tmpl');
  templateRequest.then( _.bind(this._populate, this, results) );
};

SearchResults.prototype._handleClick = function (evt) {
  var name = $(evt.target).closest('li.result').attr('data-name');
  $(document).trigger('like', [ name ]);
};

SearchResults.prototype._populate = function (results, tmpl) {
  var html = _.template(tmpl, { people: results });
  this.el.html(html);
};

Now, our old app code for managing the interaction between Search Results and the Likes Box could look like this:

var liked = new Likes('#liked');
var resultsList = new SearchResults('#results');


// ...


$(document).on('like', function (evt, name) {
  liked.add(name);
})

It’s much simpler and less entangled, because we’re using the document as a global message bus, and passing messages through it so individual components don’t need to know about each other. (Note that in a real app, we’d use something like Backbone or the RSVP library to manage events. We’re just triggering on document to keep things simple here.) We’re also hiding all the dirty work—such as finding the name of the person who was liked—inside the Search Results object, rather than having it muddy up our application code. The best part: we can now write tests to prove that our Search Results object works as we expect:

var ul;
var data = [ /* fake data here */ ];

setup(function () {
  ul = $('<ul><li class="no-results"></li></ul>');
});

test('constructor', function () {
  var sr = new SearchResults(ul);
  assert(sr);
});

test('display received results', function () {
  var sr = new SearchResults(ul);
  sr.setResults(data);

  assert.equal(ul.find('.no-results').length, 0);
  assert.equal(ul.find('li.result').length, data.length);
  assert.equal(
    ul.find('li.result').first().attr('data-name'),
    data[0].name
  );
});

test('announce likes', function() {
  var sr = new SearchResults(ul);
  var flag;
  var spy = function () {
    flag = [].slice.call(arguments);
  };

  sr.setResults(data);
  $(document).on('like', spy);

  ul.find('li').first().find('.like.btn').click();

  assert(flag, 'event handler called');
  assert.equal(flag[1], data[0].name, 'event handler receives data' );
});

The interaction with the server is another interesting piece to consider. The original code included a direct $.ajax() request, and the callback interacted directly with the DOM:

$.ajax('/data/search.json', {
  data : { q: query },
  dataType : 'json',
  success : function( data ) {
    loadTemplate('people-detailed.tmpl').then(function(t) {
      var tmpl = _.template( t );
      resultsList.html( tmpl({ people : data.results }) );
      pending = false;
    });
  }
});

Again, this is difficult to write a unit test for, because so many different things are happening in just a few lines of code. We can restructure the data portion of our application as an object of its own:

var SearchData = function () { };

SearchData.prototype.fetch = function (query) {
  var dfd;

  if (!query) {
    dfd = $.Deferred();
    dfd.resolve([]);
    return dfd.promise();
  }

  return $.ajax( '/data/search.json', {
    data : { q: query },
    dataType : 'json'
  }).pipe(function( resp ) {
    return resp.results;
  });
};

Now, we can change our code for getting the results onto the page:

var resultsList = new SearchResults('#results');

var searchData = new SearchData();

// ...

searchData.fetch(query).then(resultsList.setResults);

Again, we’ve dramatically simplified our application code, and isolated the complexity within the Search Data object, rather than having it live in our main application code. We’ve also made our search interface testable, though there are a couple caveats to bear in mind when testing code that interacts with the server.

The first is that we don’t want to actually interact with the server—to do so would be to reenter the world of integration tests, and because we’re responsible developers, we already have tests that ensure the server does the right thing, right? Instead, we want to “mock” the interaction with the server, which we can do using the Sinon library. The second caveat is that we should also test non-ideal paths, such as an empty query.

test('constructor', function () {
  var sd = new SearchData();
  assert(sd);
});

suite('fetch', function () {
  var xhr, requests;

  setup(function () {
    requests = [];
    xhr = sinon.useFakeXMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.onCreate = function (req) {
      requests.push(req);
    };
  });

  teardown(function () {
    xhr.restore();
  });

  test('fetches from correct URL', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    sd.fetch('cat');

    assert.equal(requests[0].url, '/data/search.json?q=cat');
  });

  test('returns a promise', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    var req = sd.fetch('cat');

    assert.isFunction(req.then);
  });

  test('no request if no query', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    var req = sd.fetch();
    assert.equal(requests.length, 0);
  });

  test('return a promise even if no query', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    var req = sd.fetch();

    assert.isFunction( req.then );
  });

  test('no query promise resolves with empty array', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    var req = sd.fetch();
    var spy = sinon.spy();

    req.then(spy);

    assert.deepEqual(spy.args[0][0], []);
  });

  test('returns contents of results property of the response', function () {
    var sd = new SearchData();
    var req = sd.fetch('cat');
    var spy = sinon.spy();

    requests[0].respond(
      200, { 'Content-type': 'text/json' },
      JSON.stringify({ results: [ 1, 2, 3 ] })
    );

    req.then(spy);

    assert.deepEqual(spy.args[0][0], [ 1, 2, 3 ]);
  });
});

For the sake of brevity, I’ve left out the refactoring of the Search Form, and also simplified some of the other refactorings and tests, but you can see a finished version of the app here if you’re interested.

When we’re done rewriting our application using testable JavaScript patterns, we end up with something much cleaner than what we started with:

$(function() {
  var pending = false;

  var searchForm = new SearchForm('#searchForm');
  var searchResults = new SearchResults('#results');
  var likes = new Likes('#liked');
  var searchData = new SearchData();

  $(document).on('search', function (event, query) {
    if (pending) { return; }

    pending = true;

    searchData.fetch(query).then(function (results) {
      searchResults.setResults(results);
      pending = false;
    });

    searchResults.pending();
  });

  $(document).on('like', function (evt, name) {
    likes.add(name);
  });
});

Even more important than our much cleaner application code, though, is the fact that we end up with a codebase that is thoroughly tested. That means we can safely refactor it and add to it without the fear of breaking things. We can even write new tests as we find new issues, and then write the code that makes those tests pass.

Testing makes life easier in the long run

It’s easy to look at all of this and say, “Wait, you want me to write more code to do the same job?”

The thing is, there are a few inescapable facts of life about Making Things On The Internet. You will spend time designing an approach to a problem. You will test your solution, whether by clicking around in a browser, writing automated tests, or—shudder—letting your users do your testing for you in production. You will make changes to your code, and other people will use your code. Finally: there will be bugs, no matter how many tests you write.

The thing about testing is that while it might require a bit more time at the outset, it really does save time in the long run. You’ll be patting yourself on the back the first time a test you wrote catches a bug before it finds its way into production. You’ll be grateful, too, when you have a system in place that can prove that your bug fix really does fix a bug that slips through.

Additional resources

This article just scratches the surface of JavaScript testing, but if you’d like to learn more, check out:

  • My presentation from the 2012 Full Frontal conference in Brighton, UK.
  • Grunt, a tool that helps automate the testing process and lots of other things.
  • Test-Driven JavaScript Development by Christian Johansen, the creator of the Sinon library. It is a dense but informative examination of the practice of testing JavaScript.
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Great design is a product of care and attention applied to areas that matter, resulting in a useful, understandable, and hopefully beautiful user interface. But don’t be fooled into thinking that design is left only for designers.

There is a lot of design in code, and I don’t mean code that builds the user interface—I mean the design of code.

Well-designed code is much easier to maintain, optimize, and extend, making for more efficient developers. That means more focus and energy can be spent on building great things, which makes everyone happy—users, developers, and stakeholders.

There are three high-level, language-agnostic aspects to code design that are particularly important.

  1. System architecture—The basic layout of the codebase. Rules that govern how various components, such as models, views, and controllers, interact with each other.
  2. Maintainability—How well can the code be improved and extended?
  3. Reusability—How reusable are the application’s components? How easily can each implementation of a component be customized?

In looser languages, specifically JavaScript, it takes a bit of discipline to write well-designed code. The JavaScript environment is so forgiving that it’s easy to throw bits and pieces everywhere and still have things work. Establishing system architecture early (and sticking to it!) provides constraints to your codebase, ensuring consistency throughout.

One approach I’m fond of consists of a tried-and-true software design pattern, the module pattern, whose extensible structure lends itself to a solid system architecture and a maintainable codebase. I like building modules within a jQuery plugin, which makes for beautiful reusability, provides robust options, and exposes a well-crafted API.

Below, I’ll walk through how to craft your code into well-organized components that can be reused in projects to come.

The module pattern

There are a lot of design patterns out there, and equally as many resources on them. Addy Osmani wrote an amazing (free!) book on design patterns in JavaScript, which I highly recommend to developers of all levels.

The module pattern is a simple structural foundation that can help keep your code clean and organized. A “module” is just a standard object literal containing methods and properties, and that simplicity is the best thing about this pattern: even someone unfamiliar with traditional software design patterns would be able to look at the code and instantly understand how it works.

In applications that use this pattern, each component gets its own distinct module. For example, to build autocomplete functionality, you’d create a module for the textfield and a module for the results list. These two modules would work together, but the textfield code wouldn’t touch the results list code, and vice versa.

That decoupling of components is why the module pattern is great for building solid system architecture. Relationships within the application are well-defined; anything related to the textfield is managed by the textfield module, not strewn throughout the codebase—resulting in clear code.

Another benefit of module-based organization is that it is inherently maintainable. Modules can be improved and optimized independently without affecting any other part of the application.

I used the module pattern for the basic structure of jPanelMenu, the jQuery plugin I built for off-canvas menu systems. I’ll use that as an example to illustrate the process of building a module.

Building a module

To begin, I define three methods and a property that are used to manage the interactions of the menu system.

var jpm = {
    animated: true,
    openMenu: function( ) {
        …
        this.setMenuStyle( );
    },
    closeMenu: function( ) {
        …
        this.setMenuStyle( );
    },
    setMenuStyle: function( ) { … }
};

The idea is to break down code into the smallest, most reusable bits possible. I could have written just one toggleMenu( ) method, but creating distinct openMenu( ) and closeMenu( ) methods provides more control and reusability within the module.

Notice that calls to module methods and properties from within the module itself (such as the calls to setMenuStyle( )) are prefixed with the this keyword—that’s how modules access their own members.

That’s the basic structure of a module. You can continue to add methods and properties as needed, but it doesn’t get any more complex than that. After the structural foundations are in place, the reusability layer—options and an exposed API—can be built on top.

jQuery plugins

The third aspect of well-designed code is probably the most crucial: reusability. This section comes with a caveat. While there are obviously ways to build and implement reusable components in raw JavaScript (we’re about 90 percent of the way there with our module above), I prefer to build jQuery plugins for more complex things, for a few reasons.

Most importantly, it’s a form of unobtrusive communication. If you used jQuery to build a component, you should make that obvious to those implementing it. Building the component as a jQuery plugin is a great way to say that jQuery is required.

In addition, the implementation code will be consistent with the rest of the jQuery-based project code. That’s good for aesthetic reasons, but it also means (to an extent) that developers can predict how to interact with the plugin without too much research. Just one more way to build a better developer interface.

Before you begin building a jQuery plugin, ensure that the plugin does not conflict with other JavaScript libraries using the $ notation. That’s a lot simpler than it sounds—just wrap your plugin code like so:

(function($) {
    // jQuery plugin code here
})(jQuery);

Next, we set up our plugin and drop our previously built module code inside. A plugin is just a method defined on the jQuery ($) object.

(function($) {
    $.jPanelMenu = function( ) {
        var jpm = {
            animated: true,
            openMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            closeMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            setMenuStyle: function( ) { … }
        };
    };
})(jQuery);

All it takes to use the plugin is a call to the function you just created.

var jpm = $.jPanelMenu( );

Options

Options are essential to any truly reusable plugin because they allow for customizations to each implementation. Every project brings with it a slew of design styles, interaction types, and content structures. Customizable options help ensure that you can adapt the plugin to fit within those project constraints.

It’s best practice to provide good default values for your options. The easiest way to do that is to use jQuery’s $.extend( ) method, which accepts (at least) two arguments.

As the first argument of $.extend( ), define an object with all available options and their default values. As the second argument, pass through the passed-in options. This will merge the two objects, overriding the defaults with any passed-in options.

(function($) {
    $.jPanelMenu = function(options) {
        var jpm = {
            options: $.extend({
                'animated': true,
                'duration': 500,
                'direction': 'left'
            }, options),
            openMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            closeMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            setMenuStyle: function( ) { … }
        };
    };
})(jQuery);

Beyond providing good defaults, options become almost self-documenting—someone can look at the code and see all of the available options immediately.

Expose as many options as is feasible. The customization will help in future implementations, and flexibility never hurts.

API

Options are terrific ways to customize how a plugin works. An API, on the other hand, enables extensions to the plugin’s functionality by exposing methods and properties for the implementation code to take advantage of.

While it’s great to expose as much as possible through an API, the outside world shouldn’t have access to all internal methods and properties. Ideally, you should expose only the elements that will be used.

In our example, the exposed API should include calls to open and close the menu, but nothing else. The internal setMenuStyle( ) method runs when the menu opens and closes, but the public doesn’t need access to it.

To expose an API, return an object with any desired methods and properties at the end of the plugin code. You can even map returned methods and properties to those within the module code—this is where the beautiful organization of the module pattern really shines.

(function($) {
    $.jPanelMenu = function(options) {
        var jpm = {
            options: $.extend({
                'animated': true,
                'duration': 500,
                'direction': 'left'
            }, options),
            openMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            closeMenu: function( ) {
                …
                this.setMenuStyle( );
            },
            setMenuStyle: function( ) { … }
        };

        return {
            open: jpm.openMenu,
            close: jpm.closeMenu,
            someComplexMethod: function( ) { … }
        };
    };
})(jQuery);

API methods and properties will be available through the object returned from the plugin initialization.

var jpm = $.jPanelMenu({
    duration: 1000,
    …
});
jpm.open( );

Polishing developer interfaces

With just a few simple constructs and guidelines, we’ve built ourselves a reusable, extensible plugin that will help make our lives easier. Like any part of what we do, experiment with this structure to see if it works for you, your team, and your workflow.

Whenever I find myself building something with a potential for reuse, I break it out into a module-based jQuery plugin. The best part about this approach is that it forces you to use—and test—the code you write. By using something as you build it, you’ll quickly identify strengths, discover shortcomings, and plan changes.

This process leads to battle-tested code ready for open-source contributions, or to be sold and distributed. I’ve released my (mostly) polished plugins as open-source projects on GitHub.

Even if you aren’t building something to be released in the wild, it’s still important to think about the design of your code. Your future self will thank you.

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I know you’ve been asked this plenty of times already, but: no new vendor prefixes, right? Right?

Nope, none! They’re great in theory but turns out they fail in practice, so we’re joining Mozilla and the W3C CSS WG and moving away them. There’s a few parts to this.

Firstly, we won’t be migrating the existing -webkit- prefixed properties to a -chrome- or -blink- prefix, that’d just make extra work for everyone. Secondly, we inherited some existing properties that are prefixed. Some, like -webkit-transform, are standards track and we work with the CSS WG to move ahead those standards while we fix any remaining issues in our implementation and we’ll unprefix them when they’re ready. Others, like -webkit-box-reflect are not standards track and we’ll bring them to standards bodies or responsibly deprecate these on a case-by-case basis. Lastly, we’re not introducing any new CSS properties behind a prefix.

Pinky swear?

Totes. New stuff will be available to experiment with behind a flag you can turn on in about:flags called “Experimental Web Platform Features”. When the feature is ready, it’ll graduate to Canary, and then follow its ~12 week path down through Dev Channel, Beta to all users at Stable.

The Blink prefix policy is documented and, in fact, WebKit just nailed down their prefix policy going forward. If you’re really into prefix drama (and who isn’t!) Chris Wilson and I discussed this a lot more on the Web Ahead podcast [37:20].

How long before we can try Blink out in Chrome?

Blink’s been in Chrome Canary as of the day we announced it. The codebase was 99.9% the same when Blink launched, so no need to rush out and check everything. All your sites should be pretty much the same.

Chrome 27 has the Blink engine, and that’s available on the beta channel for
Win, Mac, Linux, ChromeOS and Android. (See the full beta/stable/dev/canary
view
).

While the internals are apt to be fairly different, will there be any radical changes to the rendering side of things in the near future?

Nothing too alarming, layout and CSS stuff is all staying the same. Grid layout is still in development, though, and our Windows text rendering has been getting a new backend that we can hook up soon, greatly boosting the quality of webfont rendering there.

We’re also interested in better taking advantage of multiple cores on machines, so the more we can move painting, layout (aka reflow), and style recalculation to a separate thread, but the faster everyone’s sites will render. We’re already doing multi-threaded painting on ChromeOS and Android, and looking into doing it on Mac & Windows. If you’re interested in these experimental efforts or watching new feature proposals, take a look at the blink-dev mailing list. A recent proposed experiment is called Oilpan, where we’ll look into the advantages of moving the implementation of Chrome’s DOM into JavaScript.

Will features added to Blink be contributed back to the WebKit project? Short term; long term?

Since Blink launched there’s been a few patches that have been landed in both Blink and WebKit, though this is expected to decline in the long-term, as the code bases will diverge.

When are we likely to start seeing Blink-powered versions of Chrome on Android? Is it even possible on iOS, or is iOS Chrome still stuck with a Safari webview due to Apple’s policies?

Blink is now in the Chrome Beta for Android. Chrome for iOS, due to platform limitations, is based on the WebKit-based WebView that’s provided by iOS.

Part of this move seems to be giving Google the freedom to remove old or disused features that have been collecting dust in WebKit for ages. There must be a few things high on that list—what are some of those things, and how can we be certain their removal won’t lead to the occasional broken website?

A few old ’n crusty things that we’re looking at removing: the isindex attribute, RangeException, and XMLHttpRequestException. Old things that have little use in the wild and just haven’t gotten a spring cleaning from the web platform for ages.

Now, we don’t want to break the web, and that’s something that web browser engineers have always been kept very aware of. We carefully gauge real-world usage of things like CSS and DOM features before deprecating anything. At Google we have a copy of the web that we run queries against, so we have a pretty OK idea of what CSS and JavaScript out there is using.

Blink also has over 32,000 tests in its test suite, and manual confirmation that over 100 sites work great before every release ships. And we’re working closely with the W3C and Adobe to share tests and testing infrastructure across browsers, with the goals of reducing maintenance burden, improving interoperability, and increasing test coverage. Eventually we’d like all new features to ship with shared conformance tests, ensuring interoperability even as we add cutting-edge stuff.

Still, any deprecation has to be done responsibly. There’s now a draft Blink process for deprecating features which includes:

  • Anonymous metrics to understand how much any specific feature is used “in the wild”
  • ”Intent to deprecate” emails that hit blink-dev months before anything is
    removed
  • Warnings that you’ll find in your DevTools console if you’re using anything
    deprecated
  • Mentions on the Chromium blog like this Chrome 27
    wrap-up
    .

Did part of the decision to branch away from WebKit involve resistance to adding a Dart VM? WebKit’s goals explicitly mention JavaScript, and Apple representatives have been fairly vocal about not seeing a need.

Nope, not at all. The decision was made by the core web platform engineers. Introducing a new VM to a browser introduces considerable maintenance cost (we saw this with V8 and JavaScriptCore both in WebKit) and right now Dart isn’t yet ready to be considered for an integration with Blink. (more on that in a sec). Blink’s got strong principles around compatibility risk and this guides a lot of the decisions around our commitments to potential features as they are proposed. You can hear a more complete answer here from Darin Fisher, one of the Chrome web platform leads.

Have any non-WebKit browsers recently expressed an interest in Dart? A
scripting language that only stands to work in one browser sounds a little
VBScript-y.

Not yet, but since Dart compiles to JavaScript and runs across the modern web, it’s not gated by other browsers integrating the VM. But it’s still early days, Dart has not yet reached a stable 1.0 milestone and that there are still technical challenges with the Dart VM around performance and memory management. Still, It’s important to point out that Dart is an open source project, with a bunch of external contributors and committers.

Let me take a moment to provide my own perspective on Dart. :) Now, as you know, I’m a JavaScript guy, so early on, I took a side and and considered Dart an enemy. JavaScript should win; Dart is bad! But then I came to realize the Dart guys aren’t just setting out to improve the authoring and scalability of web application development. They also really want the web to win.  Now I’ve recently spoke about how The Mobile Web Is In Trouble, and clarified that my priorities are seeing it provide a fantastic user experience to everyone. For me, seeing the mobile web be successful trumps language wars and certainly quibbling over syntax. So I’m happy to see developers embrace the authoring advantages of Coffeescript, the smart subset of JavaScript strict mode, the legendary Emscripten & asm.js combo, the compiler feedback of TypeScript and the performance ambitions of Dart. It’s worth trying out technologies that can leapfrog the current expectations of the user experience that we can deliver. Our web is worth it.

Will Opera be using the Chromium version of Blink wholesale, as far as you know? Are we likely to see some divergence between Opera and Chrome?

As I understand it, Opera Mobile, Opera Desktop, and Opera Mini will all be based on Chromium. This means that they’ll not only share the exact version of Blink that Chrome uses, but also the same graphics stack, JavaScript engine, and networking stack. Already, Opera has contributed some great things to Blink and we’re excited about what’s next.

Why the name “Blink,” anyway?

Haha. Well… it’s a two parter. First, Blink evokes a certain feeling of speed and simplicity—two core principles of Chrome. Then, Chrome has a little tradition of slightly ironic names. Chrome itself is all about minimizing the browser chrome, and the Chromebook Pixel is all about not seeing any pixels at all. So naturally, it fits that Blink will never support the infamous <blink> tag. ;)

<3z

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