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Original author: 
Yoshihiko Mano

It’s the nature of the beast that web design is always changing, and one of the many things that designers often lose sleep over is fonts.

Till recently web fonts were usually limited to ones installed on Windows or OSX, but these days you can choose a wide range of fonts available online. This means lots of choice for design but with more choice comes more woe. Which one to pick for which occasion?

Well, let’s put aside difficult decisions for a moment. We want to have a bit of fun with fonts! PingMag has scoured the plains of the world wide web for some funky Japanese fonts that are useful (okay, maybe not so useful!) — but always unique.

Fonts that are almost practical!

Imagine Yokohama fun-japanese-fonts01

This font was created to mark 150 years since Yokohama opened its port to the world and to remake the “Yokohama” brand. The designers researched the images that people associated with Yokohama, and then turned the character you could see in these into a font. The result is a harmony of classic and modern, and rather attractive too. You can write in Roman characters and Hiragana, but the Kanji is limited just to characters used in Yokohama ward names!

Yakitori Font fun-japanese-fonts02Photo by matsuyuki

fun-japanese-fonts03

This is recommended for all budding izakaya owners! You can almost taste the atmosphere just in the lettering. (Personal use okay. Apply for commercial use.)

Yoji Font

fun-japanese-fonts04

Perfect if you’re in need of some nostalgia. Do you remember how your handwriting looked when you were a young child (yoji)? Say three or four years old? Well, with this font adults can recreate that charmingly earnest look on their work documents! It’s Japanese only and, of course, there’s no Kanji. (Personal and commercial use okay.)

Fonts for sentimental train (and other forms of transportation) aficionados

National Rail-esque Font fun-japanese-fonts05Photo by tosimisi

fun-japanese-fonts06

So now you can turn any word into a railway station name! The font resembles the style of characters used in old (i.e. back when JR was still nationalized) railway signage. Actually, it’s not just for nostalgia. The font can also look super modern and smart as well. (Personal and commercial use okay.)

Handwritten Railway Type fun-japanese-fonts07

Okay, this one’s for the real train fanatics among you, recreating the handwritten station name signs as used on Japanese railway lines from a bygone age. The design quality is also still good enough for today. (Personal and commercial use okay.)

National Rail Font: Pictographs fun-japanese-fonts08

This time it’s not words but the pictographs used in stations. Saying that, we’re not totally sure what that onsen (hot spring) symbol is doing there… (Personal and commercial use okay. Requires device with Japanese language input.)

Highway Sign Font fun-japanese-fonts09Photo by Ryo Yamaguchi

fun-japanese-fonts10 If you’re more of a driver then check out this font that looks like lettering on the signs to be found on Japanese highways. Striking and easy to read (since you are in theory driving fast!), this is great for titles. (Personal use okay. Apply for commercial use.)

Ghosts in the digital age?! Yes, it’s horror fonts!

Onryo fun-japanese-fonts11

Do you sometimes want to give your text a scary or ghoulish look? Gothic type just doesn’t cut it, right? Well, you will find Onryo (which means “ghost” or “phantom” in Japanese) a very useful font for those days in the office when you need to cast spells and curses on your work enemies. (Personal use okay. Commercial use also okay but recommended to check with the designer.)

DingTheInsect fun-japanese-fonts12

No scary experience is complete without some creepy-crawlies. For such occasions, reach for this font, which might just send shivers up your spine as you type. (Personal use okay. Commercial use also okay but recommended to check with the designer.)

Pure unadulterated fun!

JoJo Font

fun-japanese-fonts13

For the uninitiated out there, this font is in the style of the cult manga ‘JoJo’s Bizarre Adventure’. Great for adding flourishes of onomatopoeia and the like, transforming dull text into exciting comic book scenes.

Neko Font fun-japanese-fonts14

Who cares about getting meaning across? If you’re crazy about cats (neko), then the felines are all that matter! This font isn’t available as data but you can type what you want on the website, and then get an automated code to display an downloadable image.

And there you have it for now, folks! The wealth of Japanese fonts available online is almost endless if you search around — and we’ve just scratched the surface with this quick intro. Happy hunting!

Okay, so please look out for future PingMag articles written entirely in cats.

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Original author: 
(author unknown)

For ideal typography, web designers need to know as much as possible about each user’s reading environment. That may seem obvious, but the act of specifying web typography is currently like ordering slices of pizza without knowing how large the slices are or what toppings they are covered with.

If someone asked me how many slices of pizza I wanted for lunch, I would probably say it depends on how large the slices are. Then—even if they told me that each slice was one eighth of a whole pie, or that they themselves were ordering two slices, or even that the slices were coming from Joe’s Pizza—any answer I might give would still be based on relative knowledge and inexact assumptions.

Such is the current situation with the physical presentation of responsive typography on the web. The information at a designer’s disposal for responsive design is virtually nonexistent outside the realm of software. Very little knowledge about the physical presentation of content is available to inform the design. The media query features of today can only relay a very fragmented view of the content’s actual presentation, and related terms from CSS are confusing if not downright misleading.

The immeasurable pachyderm

Among all the physical qualities of web typography, the elephant in the room is the issue of size. I’m not talking about em or rem or “reference pixels” ¹ or even device pixels. I’m talking about real, actual, physical, bona fide, measurable, size!

It’s ridiculous that we can send robots to Mars yet it’s still virtually impossible to render a glyph on a web page and say with confidence: “If you measure this glyph on your screen with a ruler, it will be exactly 10 millimeters wide.” Although actual physical size isn’t always the most important factor in web design, in some cases it is critical. For example, consider content for partially-sighted or low-vision readers: the ability to tweak designs according to physical sizes would enable designers to make conscious design decisions with much more sensitivity to how the type is actually being seen. And even where physical sizing is secondary to relative sizing, why shouldn’t we nevertheless be able to factor in physical size when establishing the relationships between different elements?

Physical considerations ≠ print design

I don’t believe web typography should be a screen-based imitation of print typography. One of the greatest benefits of web typography, and web design in general, is that it is flexible, adaptable, fluidly adjustable, without being locked into any one specific configuration. However(!), that doesn’t mean web designers should be forced to design without any means to address the issues of physical presentation. On the contrary, responsive design will not reach its full potential until it allows the ability to respond to the very important physical variables of digital media.

Please pardon the cliché, but when it comes to typography, on screens or otherwise, size matters. Physical size affects optical issues that change how the eye and brain process typographic images. Not surprisingly, typographers and typeface designers have been compensating for optical size-related issues as far back as Gutenberg.

You can’t expect a paragraph of type with the same relative line-height, column width, letter-spacing, and glyph proportions to function just as well on two different displays that have the same number of pixels but completely different physical sizes. It’s great that designers can adjust proportions between typographic elements if the canvas varies in relative size, but any such compensation is still based on guesswork and assumptions about the physical size of that canvas. When people disagree about the size or spacing of type on a website, there’s a very good chance that their opinions are based on completely different physical manifestations of the same content, even if their software and settings are identical.

Resolute resolution, absolute absolution

One of the most crucial factors in the size equation is resolution. And when I say resolution, I don’t just mean “how many pixels is this?”, or even “how many device pixels is this?”, but also “how large are these pixels?”

This is very different from the W3C’s “resolution” media feature in the current draft of the Media Queries Level 4 spec. You will note that the spec refers to resolution in terms of “CSS ‘inches’”—the quotes around “inches” are theirs, implying that they are not actually inches at all.

For an example of why physical resolution matters, imagine you are rendering text on a digital billboard with a physical resolution of one pixel per inch (1 PPI). Now imagine you are rendering the same text on a 200 PPI mobile device display. Even if you knew the actual number of device pixels that would be used to render your type (which itself is difficult to do with confidence these days), you would want to treat the two compositions very differently, both in terms of the typeface as well as typographic layout. The billboard type would likely require less space between letters. The letterforms themselves would benefit from narrower proportions, and could endure a higher ratio between thick and thin strokes. The type might even require different colors to optimize contrast at that size. These are all basics of typography and typeface design.

Unfortunately, in the current landscape of media query features, there is no way to know the difference between 16 device pixels on a crude LED billboard and 16 device pixels on a high-density mobile display. Heck, there isn’t even a reliable way to know if your type is 16 device pixels at all, regardless of how large the pixels are!

Pixels still rule, for better or worse

I know what some em-based enthusiasts might be thinking: “But you shouldn’t be specifying type sizes in pixel units to start with! All type sizes should be spec’d abstractly in relation to each other or a base font size!” However, in the current world of web typography, no matter what unit of measure you use to spec your onscreen type sizes—em, rem, px, pt, in, %, vh, or whatever else—at the end of the line, your specification is being mapped to pixels. Even if you leave the base size of your document to the defaults and specify everything else with em, there is still a base size which all other sizes will ultimately refer to, and it is defined in pixels.

This is because, currently, the only unit of measure that can be rendered onscreen by any operating system with absolute confidence is the lowly pixel. Until we have media query features that allow us to spec for situations like:

@media (physical-resolution: 1device-pixels-per-physical-inch) { … }

or:

@media (device-width: 10physical-centimeters) { … }

… any compensation for physical size is based entirely on rough guesses about the devices our content will be presented on.²

It’s a complete fallacy that the official CSS spec allows so-called “absolute” units of measure like inches, points, and centimeters to be mapped to anything but actual physical units. Ironically, previous versions of CSS treated these things as you would hope and expect, but a change was made “because too much existing content relies on the assumption of 96dpi, and breaking that assumption breaks the content.” Call me idealistic if you will, but I am more of the mind that a spec should be written based on what is best for the future, not to cater to things that were made in the past.³

Getting physical

Any ability to leverage physical variables for web design will require a joint effort by several groups:

  • Device manufacturers will need to provide APIs that can inform the operating system—and, by extension, web browsers and web designers—of the actual physical properties of the hardware being used to present content to the user. Some device APIs are already beginning to show up in the world, but there is a long way to go before functionality and adoption are anywhere near dependable.
  • Standards organizations—the W3C in particular—will need to establish specifications for how to reference physical properties when formatting content. They will need to update (or at least augment) their existing “absolute” units of measure to be more meaningful, so they are more than just multipliers of sizeless pixels.
  • Software manufacturers will need to implement support for new specs relating to physical media features. Browsers are the most obvious software that will need to implement support, but the biggest challenge might be in getting native support for device APIs in operating system software.
  • Type manufacturers and type services will need to provide more diverse ranges of typefaces that have been optimized for a variety of physical properties. Ideally, many of the needed variations could even be provided on the fly using a broader approach to the ideas of font hinting.
  • Web designers and developers, last but not least, will need to build their sites to respond to physical properties, leveraging all variables to the benefit of their users.

Size and resolution are just the tip of the iceberg of physical variables that could be considered when improving web typography. Things like viewing distance, ambient light, display luminance, contrast ratio, black levels, etc., etc., could all be factored in to improve the reading experience. Even the ability to know some variables within the realm of software, like the user’s rendering engine or the presence of subpixel positioning, would go a long way toward helping web typographers design a better reading experience.

In the meantime, I’d love to see more of the players mentioned above start to at least experiment with what’s possible when physical features can be specified, detected, and factored into responsive designs in structured, meaningful, and predictable ways. Until we can do that, we’re all just ordering pizza without knowing exactly what will end up on our plate.

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Creating custom icon font files with Icomoon. Image: Screenshot/Webmonkey.

Responsive images means getting high-quality, bandwidth-friendly images to the right screens. Currently that’s not nearly as simple as it sounds, but there’s a responsive images web standard in the works and plenty of smart developers working on the problem.

Implicit in the responsive images discussion is that the images in question are photographic images. For graphics, solid-color images and icons there are already better solutions, namely, either SVG or icon fonts.

Icon fonts in particular have been getting a lot of attention lately and for good reason — they make an easy, lightweight way to serve up resolution-independent images that look good on any screen. Indeed in most cases icon fonts can replace your old image sprites (though you can keep your sprites around for older browsers). And don’t forget icon fonts are fonts, so any CSS effect that works on text will work on your symbols.

There are dozens of great icon font sets available that you can just drop into your projects. Pictos, Glyphish and Symbolset are just a few popular options. There are high-quality free icon sets as well, but it’s also easy to create your own font file from any vector image you have.

Turning your vector files into icon fonts means you can serve your RSS, social icons and perhaps even your logo all from the same custom font file (or even straight from your stylesheet with base-64 encoded data). What’s more, when you roll your own, you can include only those icons you need, further reducing file size.

I’ve been using the OS X application Glyphs to package up icon sets, but, as developer Jeremy Keith recently highlighted in a blog post, there are a number of great (and free) online services that can turn your icons into font packs. Assuming you don’t need all the font editing features found in desktop apps like Glyphs, web services like IcoMoon will work great.

To create your custom collection IcoMoon has dozens of icon fonts to choose from (some free, some not), as well as an option to convert your own graphics. Once you have your set assembled the app will spit out the whole collection as single font file ready to use on your site. You can even get the resulting font base-64 encoded so you can avoid the extra HTTP request.

For more info on how and why to use icon fonts check out the nice overview on the Pictos blog, Chris Coyer’s Icon Fonts are Awesome, developer Trent Walton’s icon font write up and Jenn Lukas’ series on icon fonts.

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We are confronted by logos and branding on a daily basis and yet some of the most memorable logos are composed of just a typeface. But how do you choose the right typeface to fit the face of your brand? Making sure the face is recognizable, useable and at the same time interchangeable, is by no means an easy task. In the fourth installment of our Collection Tier Blog series, we bring together our top three tips and a selection of FontFonts from our Collection Tier that are suitable for logo, branding and corporate identity projects.

FF Typeface Six

FF Typeface Six

The Circus Hotel, Berlin

FF Marten

FF Marten

Memorability: Your logotype and your corporate typefaces don't have to be the same - but they should harmonize, visually. Make your logo unique. Many logos use no type at all, but every logo will be paired with text. Your branding and CI faces can be individual, too, but their primary function is to be recognizable and readable. Choose selections that differentiate your brand from competitors, while still appearing clear and 'corporate'. Although many companies rely on modern or humanist sans serif typefaces for their identities, your brand's face could be a serif.

FF Moonbase Alpha

FF Moonbase Alpha

Usability: Does your typeface family have enough weights and widths to support a strong typographic hierarchy? Consider how much differentiation is necessary between the elements in your documents, both for internal corporate communications and external advertising. A superfamily, with sans and serif variants, may be an apt choice. Families with optical sizes for text and display help, too - a logo and the text around it should function well in virtually every size and resolution.

FF Govan

FF Govan

Interchangeability: Corporate fonts are rarely used in isolation. Depending on a company's communication strategy, your faces are likely to be seen together with other types, too. How well does your selection play with others? If your corporate fonts have to degrade to standard fonts in certain settings - like online or in office memos - can your design cope with this substitution? Which typographic extras typically appear in your corporate documents (e.g., small caps, tabular figures and fractions)? Consider the fonts' default glyphs, as your fonts may also be used in office applications that don't easily support OpenType features.

FF Zapata

FF Zapata

Frank Sinatra School of Art, design by Pentagram

Did you miss out on our previous Collection Tier posts? Have a look at our tips and picks for Music and Nightlife, Sports and Book Text. Next up in our series, our Collection Tier selection suitable for Advertising and Packaging.

About our Collection Tier

Our Collection Tier FontFonts are a selection of cost effective typographical treasures offered as full-families. All packages are available in OpenType with Standard language support (with a few key exceptions) and are all affordably priced under €/$ 100 each.

via FontFont News Feed http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Fontfont/~3/KFzRuZhjwb4/best-collection-f...

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Every now and then, we look around, select fresh free high-quality fonts and present them to you in a brief overview. The choice out there is enormous, so the time you need to find them is usually time you should be investing in your projects. We search for them and find them so that you don’t have to.

In this selection, we’re pleased to present Signika, Plastic Type, Bariol, Alegreya, Metropolis, Typometry and other quality fonts. Please note that while most fonts are available for commercial projects, some are for personal use only and are clearly marked as such. Also, please read the licensing agreements carefully before using the fonts; they may change from time to time. Make sure to check the free quality fonts round-up from January 2011, too.

Free Quality Fonts

Signika
A remarkable sans-serif typeface with a gentle character, Signika was developed for wayfinding, signage and other media in which clarity of information is required. Developed by Anna Giedrys of Poland, the typeface has a low contrast and tall x-height to improve readability at small sizes and at far distances. The typeface has a wide character set, supporting most European languages, small caps, pictograms and arrows. All weights from light to bold have alternative negative versions, optimized to solve the effect of juxtaposed positive and negative text setting, whereby negative text tends to look thicker. Available at Google Web Fonts and for free download at Fontsquirrel.

Plastic Type
The designers of this typeface were inspired by the plastics industry, exploring how they could use the various forms and imperfections of plastic in their design. The result of their experimentation is a freely available, beautiful, playful font, released under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license.

Sullivan
Sullivan is a bold display face that comes in three variations. Each variation can be used effectively on its own or layered on the others to create a modern, industrial visual effect. The typeface was designed by Jason Mark Jones and released under the name-your-price policy.

Corki
Corki is a distinctive condensed slab-serif typeface suitable for headlines. Four styles are available: Regular, Rounded, Tuscan and Rounded Tuscan. The typeface includes 134 glyphs: both Latin and Cyrillic scripts, plus two manicules and various arrows. It is available for free.

Bariol
Bariol is a friendly, rounded, slightly condensed typeface, available in four weights and designed with versatility and readability in mind. It’s nice and familiar, without being too sweet, and very readable even at small sizes. Bariol Regular is available for free (a tweet or Facebook update is requested), but each font weight can be purchased for just $1.00.

Alegreya
This beautifully designed serif typeface has a classic, olden feel. The uppercase letterforms seem to be based on Roman script, while the lowercase characters rather have the feel of a humanist book. The family consists of 12 fonts (including regular, italic, bold, black, bold italic and black italic.)

Alegreya

Metropolis
Metropolis is a distinctive, experimental typeface in the Art Deco style. The design was inspired by the industrial movement of the 1920s, when skyscrapers where born. As the designer explains, “Using a double line technique, I wanted to create my own Art Deco style font that represented this era. The result is a bold, bumptious typeface with a stolidly calm disposition.” Metropolis could be a good choice when you are looking for a retro or retro-futuristic look. Released under Fontfabric’s Free Font EULA, you may use it in your private and commercial projects for free, but if you use it with a @font-face declaration, then a credit to Fontfabric is required somewhere on your website.

Typometry
An experimental display typeface inspired by geometrical forms. An interesting choice for unique patterns or just playing arond with glyphs. Designed by Emil Kozole. An advanced version of the typeface with 2 weights, 4 styles and 220 glyphs is available as well.

Tikal Sans Medium
Tikal Sans is a family with curved terminating strokes, ending in sharp edges. With a contemporary feel, a tall x-height and OpenType contextual alternate letters, Tikal Sans offers a functional look with a friendly touch. The thin and black weights are great for display sizes, while the light, regular and medium weights are well suited to longer texts. Tikal Sans Medium and Tikal Sans Medium Italic are available for free, but registration is required.

Tikal Sans

Actor
If you are looking for a workhorse typeface, then Actor might be it. It has a tall x-height, which is why it requires fairly high line spacing. The digits of Actor are created as old-style figures. The font can be used for free via Google Web Fonts.

Veneer Extras and Veneer Extras Italic
Veneer is a versatile, handcrafted “letterpress” font that has an authentic vintage feel with a touch of grunge. The freely available extras include 70 glyphs, in both regular and italics. Registration is required for the free download.

Wayfinding Sans
This type family, designed by Ralf Herrmann, sets a new standard for legibility in signage and wayfinding. Herrmann started this project with extensive field studies, driving tens of thousands of miles to explore the legibilty of road signage typefaces in dozens of countries around the world. The results of these explorations, along with an extensive study of relevant scientific legibilty research, formed the theoretical framework for creating an “ultimate” signage typeface. Wayfinding Sans includes 400 glyphs in one style, with arrows. To get the font, a tweet or Facebook update is required.

Ranger
Here is a playful Colorado-inspired italic typeface, designed by Evan Huwa. It’s a good choice for a bold movie title or a vintage book style. This typeface is sans serif and uppercase only.

Poly
José Nicolás Silva Schwarzenberg of the University of Buenos Aires designed this free font specifically for the South American indigenous language Wayuunaiki. Fortunately, the tyepface can be used not only by the 305,000 Wayuu people, but by everyone across the world. It is a medium-contrast serif font, optimized for the Web and efficient at smaller sizes. Poly is available in the Google Web Fonts library as well.

 Poly, A Quality Serif Font

Adec
Designed by Serge Shi of Russia, Adec is an original experimental typeface. The texture of the glyphs makes the typeface a good choice for distinctive playful designs and graphic branding. The typeface has three styles: Main, Initials and Text. The download contains samples of patterns created using the typeface alone.

Frontage Outline
Frontage is a charming layered typographic system that allows you to combine fonts and colors to achieve an interesting 3-D effect. Add the shadow font or just use the capital letters of the regular and bold cut for a stark effect. Unfortunately, only the Frontage Outline one is available for free (or at least paid for with a tweet or Facebook update).

Andada
This serif typeface might be the perfect fit for the headlines and body copy of your next corporate or personal project. Designed specifically for Spanish text, this typeface is a solid fit for English as well. The free typeface was given the 2010 Desigh Award by Bienal Ibero-Americana. It includes the basic set, accented characters, signs and punctuation, numbers, ligatures and mathematical signs. Released under the SIL Open Font License.

Blanch
Blanch is a distinctive display face, designed for the Fruita Blanch brand, a family-run company. The typeface is a great match for brochures and posters, but can be used for headings on the Web as well. Although it might look a bit rigid, the typeface has a modern, contemporary feel. The family consists of six weights: three condensed weights and three caps weights. Designed by the Spanish design studio Atipus, and released with a name-your-price license.

Valentina
Valentina is a classic “didone” that follows some of the principles of Bodoni from the 18th century, while incorporating many characteristics of the Spanish style of the time. The font contains 457 glyphs, with 125 alternative lowercase glyphs and 46 ligatures. Some of the glyphs can be nicely integrated in a logo or branding design and combined with Ampersand (featured above) or Zeta.

Sánchez
Sánchez is a display serif type family. Similar to Rockwell, it has rounded edges, which provide contrast and balance to the overall square forms. Regular and italic variants are available for free.

Erler Dingbats
This typeface covers the full encoding range for dingbats in Unicode (U + 2700 to U + 27BF). Erler Dingbats is the result of a collaboration between designers Johannes Erler and Henning Skibbe to create a consistent, contemporary font that could be used for everyday communication. It includes a range of popular symbols and pictograms, such as arrows, pens, phones, stars, crosses and checkmarks.

Entypo Pictograms
Entypo Pictograms is a set of more than 100 pictograms available as OpenType fonts, released under the Creative Commons license and free for commercial use. The collection consists of many navigation elements and other familiar icons. Its designers, Daniel Bruce and Andreas Blombäck, look forward to seeing usage of it.

Great Vibes
This beautiful, flowing typeface has looping ascenders and descenders, as well as elegant uppercase forms. It is a Unicode typeface that supports languages that use the Latin script and its variants.

Arvo
This typeface has strong contrast without feeling overwhelming. It can be used in headings and design campaigns. The smaller sizes (9, 12, 14 and 16 points) are hinted in TrueType format for better legibility on Windows. The font is published in the Google Font directory as a free open font (OFL).

Banda Free Regular
Banda is a semi-serif typeface with a tall x-height and rounded semi-serifs. Playful and inviting and suitable for logos, headlines and packaging designs, Banda Regular is available as a free download.

Edmondsans
Edmondsans is a free display typeface with three weights (regular, medium and bold). The typeface isn’t suited to every occasion but would be good for bold, conservative headings.

Fenix
Fenix is a serif typeface designed for display and long passages of text, with its strong serifs and rough strokes. Fenix is elegant yet legible at large sizes, probably a good fit for editorial work, books and newspapers. It is freely available for private and commercial use.

EB Garamond
Georg Duffner is recreating the classical Garamond with his open-source project EB Garamond. His goal is to revive Claude Garamont’s famous humanist typeface from the mid-16th century. Duffner’s design reproduces the original, with its letterforms taken from a scan of a specimen known as the “Berner specimen.” It’s a good, comprehensive Web font, released under the SIL Open Font License, 1.1, and also available on Google Web Fonts. The project is under ongoing development, so if you’d like to help Duffner, feel free to contribute.

Noticia Text
This slab-serif typeface was designed for long passages of texts in digital newspapers and other on-screen publications. Available for free in four styles, the typeface is currently under development, but the first version is available now.

Lusitana
Lusitana is a classic serif typeface inspired by the type found in the 1572 first edition of The Lusiads, a Portuguese epic poem by Luís Vaz de Camões. This typeface is made for long passages of text at small sizes. Designed by Ana Paula Megda.

Cardo
Cardo is a large Unicode font designed especially for academic needs. It works well for general typesetting in situations where a high-quality old-style font is appropriate. Its large character set supports many modern languages, as well as those studied by scholars. Cardo also contains ligatures, text figures (i.e. old-style numerals), true small capitals and a variety of punctuation and spacing characters.

Exo Font Family
A successful Kickstarter project made it possible for Natanael Gama of Portugal to create this typeface and release it publicly. Exo is a comprehensive geometric sans-serif font family with nine weights, in both regular and italic. Each font comes with many OpenType features such as small caps, ligatures, alternates, old-style figures, tabular figures and fractions. Both the OpenType and source files are available to download for free.

NeoDeco
This typeface was designed by Jonatan Xavier to imbue the Art Deco style with a strong modern feel. It is best for brochures and packaging designs, posters and magazines.

Bitter Regular
This slab-serif typeface was designed specifically for literary texts and for reading on screen with eInk technology. The typeface is a great fit for headings in a corporate brochure or on a website. Only one font weight is available, in TrueType and OpenType formats. A description and images are available on the designer’s website. The download link on the official website isn’t working anymore, but you can still download it from Designer In Action. Released under the SIL Open Font License.

Alegreya

Last Clicks

Type Connection
A good relationship can be characterized as two people who fit together. Aura Seltzer adopted this idea for her game Type Connection, which was her MFA thesis project. In this game, you are a procurer who helps different typefaces mate with each other. Each typeface is a lonely character searching for love, and your job is to find its perfect partner. By playing the game, you not only explore type history, but also learn typographic terms, while learning how to pair typefaces.

Type Connection

Just My Type
Picking just the right typeface can be difficult. On this page, Dan Eden presents a collection of beautiful font stacks delivered by Typekit. Some of the combinations aren’t necessarily revolutionary, but Eden delivers a nice, visually pleasing collection nevertheless. Some of the fonts are even free. Whether you’re looking for a new font to please a client or just want to play around, you won’t waste your time visiting Dan’s website. And for a more thorough article on combining typefaces, check out “Four Techniques for Combining Typefaces.”

Novel Constructions
A detailed case study on how Christoph Dunst designed the typeface Novel. Interesting and unique insights into the design process.

Showcase of Typographic Posters
This project is curated by André Felipe, a graphic designer who loves typography and its unorthodox uses. Featuring literally hundreds of posters, this project is a great resource that could serve either as a platform to show off your talent or as a reference for your next project.

Showcase Of Typographic Posters

Squared Superheroes
How well do you know your favorite superheroes? What kind of weapons do they fight with? What do their masks look like? Instead of drawing the usual fine details (facial expressions, hair, shadows, special visual effects), René Schiffer goes for a rather laconic, minimal style. He has picked out the most important characteristics of each superhero and represented them as squared forms. Placed side by side, the superheroes make for a great composition. Now, see if you recognize your childhood heroes! And no, it’s not a typeface, but… well, it could be one!

Squared Superheroes

Further Resources

  • Lost Type Co-Op
    The Lost Type Co-Op is a pay-what-you-want type foundry. Users can pay whatever they like for a font or type in “$0” for a free download. All proceeds from sales go directly to the designers of the fonts themselves.
  • The League of Moveable Type
    This open-source type movement brings high-quality tyepfaces to the Web. The creators of the project release quality fonts every now and then, so stay tuned!
  • Google Web Fonts
    This growing directory offers hundreds of free open-source fonts optimized for the Web. Google also provides ready-to-use snippets to integrate the fonts on your website.
  • Typography and free fonts on Smashing Magazine
    An overview of typography-related articles and free font round-ups on Smashing Magazine.

We sincerely appreciate the time and effort of all of the type designers featured in this post. Please keep in mind that type design is a time-consuming craft that truly deserves compensation and support. Please consider supporting the type designers who create and release these amazing typefaces for all of us to use.

(al)

© Smashing Editorial for Smashing Magazine, 2012.

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Stéphane Elbaz is graphic and type designer working in New York and Paris. In 2009 he was awarded the Certificate of Excellence in Type Design from the Type Directors Club of New York for his type family Geneo, recently published by Typofonderie. He is the first typeface designer from outside the foundry to be published by Typofonderie.

How do you define yourself?

I am a designer. I intend to solve problems with aesthetic solutions, but at the same time develop a personal expression. It’s this gap that I find interesting.

My taste for letters appeared really early in my life, during my teenage years. At that time it wasn’t properly an interest in type, but certainly a taste for letters as plastic shapes. Going to the Arts Décoratifs school in Paris led me to discover classic typography. How could one not to be nostalgic when contemplating those school years? It’s very important for me because of how much I learned during these years. Classes with Rudi Meyer and Jean François Porchez gave me the context and the latitude to look at the subject with a more experimental way of thinking.

It was during the type design courses lead by Jean François Porchez that I was involved in the creation of the Caffeine and Cooker Black typefaces. This was clearly an important starting point for me; I don’t know if I would have been brave enough to involve myself in rigorous typographic projects without this first step. Thus letters for me became the dominant element of my graphic design. Type design is a discipline that requires a taste for abstraction plus a systematic mind — two things that fit well with my professional mindset.

You do both web design and type design, which is pretty rare. How does this affect how you work?

Concerning my web design skills, it’s a question I should ask of my colleagues. I don’t know if working with headlines devoid of kerning, or the inability to set a nicely ragged left paragraph is more difficult for me to live with than it is for others. I do, however, have good reasons to be optimistic. Things are evolving more quickly and always improving. The future will bring with it more and more screens and resolutions, and it is important that the typographic quality on these devices improves accordingly.

I think what has occurred on the Internet for some years is a perfect illustration of the importance of typography in graphic design. The capacity to use a large font palette, in comparison to the three or four standards that were used for dynamic texts, changes everything, and permits designers to express different identities.

Beyond the technical constraints of various screens, I don’t think there is any fundamental difference between the content presented on a screen or on paper — in much the same way as I don’t think that twitter or text messages radically changes our language. After all, it’s the graphic designer that has to choose the typefaces appropriate to the subject, and deal with technical constraints with a broader focus than just the screen or the piece of paper.

Why did you leave France to live and work in New York? From there, what can you say about type design in the United States and in France?

I like the charm of tiny cities. Seriously though, the United States is a big country and therefore has a great diversity of expression. There is certainly a tone in American graphic design that is quite different; the references are not exactly the same as in France. It seems, for instance, that the idea of tradition and the images associated with it are not the same in Paris and New York. The shapes and the imaginative world of tradition are an important foundation upon which type designers work, thus there are going to be differences in the type aesthetic.

What is the genesis of your typeface, Geneo?

Geneo was a personal project that I began without thinking of a context or a specific use. I was attracted to slab serifs and began drawing a really thin weight, a little like a typewriter character, but with some kind of Renaissance spirit. I think that I was trying to find an anachronistic mix that actually worked. I was also fond of the brush-made flourish shapes of the Art Nouveau period, and I was particularly inspired by them. All of these elements combined could feel a bit heavy, but my idea was to make a contemporary character where the shapes had to be synthetic while at the same time retaining some flesh, some of the organic.

Geneo won the TDC prize back in 2009, and today it is distributed by Typofonderie, although it’s not exactly the same typeface. Its original identity remains intact, but it had to evolve to conform with the foundry’s standards. This meant a lot of work, but I benefitted from the guidance and exceptional eye of Jean François Porchez. We worked together on both the design of each particular glyph’s details as well as the weight scale of the entire family. Time was also spent designing dingbats and alternative glyphs.

I believe that this new typeface family permits a great diversity of uses. The lighter weights used in headlines can convey both a delicatessen or a piece of literature. The intermediate weights can be used to set body text in an academic journal or in the logo of a new social network. We imagine the heavier weights being used on posters or in editorial design. The family as a whole can also be used in works needing a complex typographic hierarchy. Also, I think that in the context of a rational and minimal text layout, Geneo can add a connotative dimension, a level of contrast. For me, an even more exciting prospect is to see my typeface appear in ways that I couldn’t have envisaged. It’s from other graphic designers’ creations that I am waiting to see new and interesting interpretations.

Can you share something about the new typefaces you are working on?

I have a few things in progress, which I think is often the case with type designers; having several typeface ideas in the back of their minds. What determines if a typeface will one day be completed and released or not is the relevancy of its shapes and its identity. Some others will never be finished because they are shaky in their concept or just not original. I currently have a sans-serif project that I would like to finish. Unfortunately, it’s a category that already appears saturated and therefore is particularly challenging, but nonetheless stimulating.

Interview by Jérémy Landes-Nones.

Graphic and type designer Stephane Elbaz holds degrees in Visual Communication (2003) and Interactive Research (2004) from the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs. In 2009 he was awarded the Certificate of Excellence in Type Design from the Type Directors Club of New York for his type family Geneo (published by Typofonderie). He works in New York and Paris.



Sponsored by H&FJ.

An Interview with Stéphane Elbaz

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What is it that makes a typeface into a text font, instead of a font for larger sizes? The answer differs slightly, depending on whether one aims for print or Web-based environments.

Nevertheless, there are certain features that most good text faces have in common. Familiarity with these helps to select the right fonts for a given project. This article presents a few criteria to help the process along.

Some of today’s most successful typefaces were designed to excel in very specific areas of use: Frutiger grew out of airport signage, Georgia and Verdana were among the first mass-market fonts created for on screen reading, FF Meta was conceived as a telephone book face, and even the Stalwart Times New Roman was tailored for the pages of the London Newspaper The Times. Many typefaces are also often fine-tuned for using in certain sizes.

It should be noted that in this article, when “text” is mentioned, it is in discussion of body text, or running text (in other words, text at a similar size to what you are probably reading right now, rather than much larger sized words).

Features Of A Good Text Typeface

The features outlined in this article are those that type designers keep in mind while developing new typefaces. It’s important to realize that these aspects of typeface design are different from the text treatment a graphic designer employs while laying out a book page or website—no matter what a typeface’s inherent rhythm and niceties are, setting a text is still something that must be done with great care in respect to readability. There are problems that good fonts themselves cannot solve—whether or not a text sings on the page or screen depends on factors like the width of the column, the amount of space between each line, the contrast between the foreground/background and a number of other factors.

Different versions of the Bembo design
Above, Bembo over the years: this typeface was a favorite of many book designers throughout the 20th century. At the top of the image is a scan of the original Bembo typeface, printed with letterpress. The digital version of the typeface—Bembo, seen in the middle, is too light for ideal text in print. A newer digitization was published in 2002—Bembo Book, seen at the bottom. This font is much darker, and is a better representation of the original Bembo idea. However, the middle version is still very elegant, and may still be used well in sub-headlines.

Every typeface has its own inherent rhythm, created by the designer who made the font. With typefaces that are intended for use in body text, it is primarily this rhythm that will make the typeface readable. But there are additional factors that go into the making of a good text face: the space between the letters, the degree of contrast in the letters’ strokes, as well as the x-height and relative size of the whitespace inside of the letters. Not every typeface that works well in text will apply all of these factors in the same way, but all good ones will have many of these features in common.

1. Stroke Contrast

When it comes to typefaces, the term “monolinear” is used to describe letters that appear to be designed with a consistent stroke thickness. Monolinear typefaces are low-contrast typefaces. Stroke contrast can be a helpful feature in small text sizes, but it is not paramount that a text face appears to be monolinear. Indeed, many newspapers employ high-contrast fonts; the question that must be considered is just how thick the thin strokes in high-contrast typefaces are.

Sample Layout in the Cycles typefaces

The images in this section show different ends of the contrast spectrum: the Cycles types shown above are serifed, with a good deal of contrast. Sumner Stone’s Cycles typeface is an excellent choice for book design as its letter forms combine clarity with a rather high degree of stroke contrast and an almost timeless appearance. Five separate “versions” of Cycles are used in the above image; each block of text is set in its own optically-sized font.

Below, Avenir Next—also a great text face—is from another style of letter, and has very little contrast. I wouldn’t split good typefaces up into good contrast and bad contrast groups. Rather, some typefaces have a degree of contrast—be it too high or too low—that makes them less suitable for use in text. There is no definite rule on how much or how little contrast impacts a text face’s legibility. However, it is clear that both no contrast and excessive contrast can have adverse effects.

Text in Planeta and Avenir Next

Geometric sans serif typefaces often appear to be monolinear stokes; their letters seem not to have any stroke contrast. In order to achieve this effect to the max, type designers have always made slight optical corrections. To look monolinear, a geometric sans needs some degree of thinning. In the image above, Planeta (left) is compared with Avenir Next (right). Both typefaces are more recent additions to the geometric sans category than stalwart faces (like Futura), or classic display designs (like ITC Avant Garde Gothic). Planeta has no visible stroke contrast, which must be a conscious decision on the part of its designer. While this does give it a unique style, it makes the face less suitable for text than Avenir Next, which is actually not as monolinear as it appears at first glance.

2. Optical Sizes

Text in Garamond Premier Caption and Display Sizes

The Garamond Premier typeface family features different versions of each font. These variants are tailored for use in a certain size range. Above, the Display font (left) is compared with the Caption font (right). The Display font is optimized for texts that will appear in very large point sizes, while the Caption font has been optimized for very small text.

In her book Thinking with Type, Ellen Lupton writes:

“A type family with optical sizes has different styles for different sizes of output. The graphic designer selects a style based on context. Optical sizes designed for headlines or display tend to have delicate, lyrical forms, while styles created for text and captions are built with heavier strokes.”

The intended size of a text should be considered when selecting the typeface: is the typeface you want to use appropriate for the size in which you need to set it? Does the family include optical sizes (that is, different versions of the typeface that are tailored specifically for use at different sizes)? As with each of the factors mentioned in this article, the size at which a font is set can make or break your text.

In many ways, it is easiest to see the qualities necessary for good text faces by comparing potential selections with “display” faces. Like the term “text,” “display” refers to the size at which a specific font may best be used. In print media, as well as in many screen and mobile-based applications, the term “display” is often analogous with “headlines.” If a typeface that you are considering looks more like something that you might like to use for a headline, it won’t be the best choice for body text.

In the comparison image below, the Garamond Premier Display font has a tighter rhythm than the Caption font—not as much space is necessary between letters when they are set in large point sizes. Why should one consider type families with optical sizes, anyway? Well, as users bump up the point size of digital fonts, the space between letters increases in equal proportion. This inter-letter space slowly becomes too large, and makes a text feel like it is breaking apart. When a proper text font is set large, it may require some tighter tracking. Typeface families that offer optically-sized variants of their styles play a helpful role here.

Text in Garamond Premier Caption and Display Sizes

In the image above, the first line of text—“Stanley Morison”—is set in the Garamond Premier Display font, while the lines of text underneath it are set in Garamond Premier Caption. Each font is balanced for its size, and they also harmonize well with one another. In another image (below), these fonts have been switched: the headline is now set in the Garamond Premier Caption font, and the text in the Garamond Premier Display. The letters in the Caption face look too clumsy when they are set so large, while the Display fonts’ letters appear uncomfortably thin in a “text” setting.

Text in Garamond Premier Caption and Display Sizes

The amount of stroke contrast visible in caption-sized fonts is much lower than in display-sized fonts. If the Garamond Premier Display font (from the above image) was rendered in a smaller point size, its thin strokes would begin to break apart, making the text unreadable. But this would not occur with the Caption version.

Garamond Premier Caption can robustly set real text, even in poor printing conditions. How well a font will render in small sizes on screen depends on the operating system and applications in question. Font formats themselves also play a role; in certain environments, TrueType fonts with “hinting” information may vastly improve on screen display (see the “Hinting” section at the end of this article).

3. x-Height

Text in Garamond Premier Caption and Display Sizes

Garamond Premier’s Display face (above left) is shown next to the Caption face (above right). Both fonts are set at the same point size. The Caption face features a much higher x-height than the Display font.

Many successful text faces feature high x-heights; this means that the ratio of the central vertical area of lowercase letters—the height of the letter x, for instance—is large when compared to the length of the ascenders and descenders. Depending on its design, a text face may have a low x-height and still be quite legible. But the benefit of incorporating a large x-height in a design is that it maximizes the area of primary activity.

A high x-height may also prevent some letters, like the a or the s, from appearing to become too dark; these two letters have three horizontal strokes inside the x-height space, which is a very small area in text sizes. In order for letters to maintain clarity and understandability, they must have a consistent rhythm, as well as include large, open forms.

4. The Spaces Inside of Letters

The images below illustrate just a few of the intra-letter spacing elements that should be understood and considered when choosing which typeface to choose for your body text. In order for the white spaces inside of letters to remain visible in small sizes, it is necessary for their counterforms to have a certain minimum mass, proportionally.

Counters
ITC Bodoni Six and ITC Bodoni Seventytwo

The image above shows text set in two members of the ITC Bodoni family: ITC Bodoni Seventytwo and ITC Bodoni Six typefaces. In the first line, “Randgloves” is set in a size mastered for 72pt display (ITC Bodoni Seventytwo), while “and jam” is in the Caption size (ITC Bodoni Six). These words are reversed in the second line. Note how the enclosed white space in the top portion of the e changes between the display and text optical sizes.

Apertures
Apertures in FF Meta

“Apertures” are the gateways that whitespaces use to move in and out of the counterforms of a typeface’s letter. The above image highlights the wide apertures in four letters from Erik Spiekermann’s FF Meta typeface. These allow for the typeface’s letterforms to feel more open. In certain sizes and settings, wide apertures—and the large counterforms that are their result—will make a text more readable.

Apertures in Frutiger and Helvetica

The top line of the image above is set in Helvetica, and the bottom line in Frutiger. While the counterforms inside the letters of these two typefaces are similar in size, Helvetica’s apertures are much smaller. Because of this, white spaces inside of Helvetica’s letters and between Helvetica’s letters are much more closed off from each other than in a typeface with more open counters—like Frutiger.

Other counterforms and problematic letters worth remembering include the c; if the apertures of a, e, s are very open, the c should follow this same route. Then there are lowercase letters like a, e, g, s that often have rather complex shapes—specifically, they each feature several horizontal strokes inside a small amount of vertical space. How do their forms relate to one another? How large is the typeface’s x-height? Do the ascenders and descenders have enough room, particularly f and g? Do the counterforms inside of roundish letters (e.g., b, d, p, q, o) have the same optical size and color as those inside of straight-sided letters like, h, n, m, and u? How different from one another are the forms of the capital I, the lowercase i and l, and the figure 1? Can the 3 and the 8 be quickly differentiated from each other? How about the 5 and the 6?

5. Kerning

Sample text in Carter Sans, with and without kerning

In the sample above, kerning has been deactivated for the second line. The gaps between the letters T y and V o are too large when compared with the amount of space between the other letters in the text. The typeface used in the image is Carter Sans.

Despite the popular misuse of the term in graphic design circles, “kerning” does not refer to the spacing values to the left and right of the letters in a font. Rather, fonts contain a list of kerning pairs to improve the spacing between the most troubling lettering combinations. The importance of kerning in a font is the role it may play in maintaining an optimal rhythm. Just as kerning describes something much more specific than a typeface’s overall spacing—or the tracking that a graphic designer might apply to a text—kerning is not the rhythm of a typeface itself, but an element that may strengthen a typeface’s already existing rhythm. Not every typeface design requires kerning, and there are typefaces on the market that indeed may have too many kerning pairs—a sign that the basic letter spacing in the font could have been too faulty in the beginning.

6. Consistent Rhythm Along the Line

Simple Text Sample in Frutiger and Helvetica

In the image above, compare the spaces between the letters of the Helvetica typeface (first row) with Frutiger’s (second row). Frutiger is a more humanist design, featuring a slight diagonal axis in its letters; many of them look similar to Helvetica’s, at least at face value. However, the space between Helvetica’s letters is much tighter.

While most of the images in this article feature typeface families that include Optical Size variants, many commonly used typefaces on the market today do not offer these options. This is why it is helpful to be able to identify text typefaces based on their features, rather than just on their names in the font menu. As mentioned earlier, it is primarily the typeface’s rhythm that dictates the readability of a block of text.

Take Frutiger and Helvetica, which are both commonly used in text, especially for corporate communication—Neue Helvetica is even the UI typeface in iOS and MacOS X 10.7. Yet, despite its popularity, Helvetica is not very effective as a text typeface; its rhythm is too tight. By rhythm, I’m not referring to tracking—or any other feature that a designer can employ when typesetting—but the natural flow of space between letters, and within them as well. Frutiger is a much more open typeface—the spaces between its letters are closer in size to the white spaces inside of the letters than in the case of Helvetica. Like all good text typefaces, Frutiger has an even rhythm—space weaves in and out of the letters easily.

7. Caveat: Signage Faces

To round off my discussion on text typefaces, I’d like to briefly mention some fonts that are often shown in rather large sizes: fonts for signage. Interestingly, many signage typefaces have design features very similar to typefaces created for very small applications. The Frutiger typeface, based on letters that Adrian Frutiger originally developed for the Roissy airport in Paris (now named after Charles De Gaulle), is quite legible in small sizes precisely because it is a good signage typeface. Despite their size, signage fonts serve a rather different purpose than Display fonts.

Frutiger in an airport signage-like setting

Additional Elements To Consider

After considering the criteria mentioned above, the next question that often comes up is, “does this font have oldstyle figures, or small caps and ligatures, etc.?” A font’s letters might look really great in text, but if they do not include additional elements and features, their use is somewhat minimized. I avoid using fonts with small character and feature sets where I can, because I feel that the lack of these “extras” may break the kind of rhythm I aim to achieve.

1. OpenType Features

Once you’ve established a consistent rhythm by setting your text according to the correct size and application, it would be a pity to inadvertently break that flow. Large blocks of tall figures or capital letter combinations do just that.

Even in languages like German, where capital letters appear at the start of many words, the majority of letters in a text planned for immersive reading will be lowercase letters. Every language has its own frequency concerning the ratio of “simple” lowercase letters like a c e m n o r s u v w x z to lowercase letters with ascenders or descenders—b d f g h j k l p q y. In international communication, language support is a key consideration when choosing a font, and other character set considerations may especially play a role.

FF Meta Pro Book and two examples from its many figure styles

Traditionally, the style of figures used in running text also have ascenders and descenders. These figures—often called oldstyle figures or text figures—harmonize better with text than the “uppercase” lining figures. These so-called lining figures either align with the height of a typeface’s capital letters, or are slightly shorter. It is no surprise that, when shipping the Georgia fonts for use onscreen and online, Matthew Carter and Microsoft made the figures take the oldstyle form. Many other typefaces that have long been popular with graphic designers, like FF Meta (seen above), also use oldstyle figures as the default style. In my opinion, lining figures are best relegated to text set in all-caps.

Long all-caps acronyms—like NAFTA, NATO, or USSR—also create an uncomfortable block in the line for the reader. Setting these letter-strings in small caps helps reestablish a specific typeface’s natural rhythm in reading sizes, as may be seen in the first line of the image below (set in Erik Spiekermann’s FF Meta).

FF Meta Pro Book and its small caps

Along with common ligatures like fi ff fl, small caps and the many figure options are the most common OpenType features found in quality text fonts. Aside from having both lining and oldstyle figures, OpenType-functionality can enable a font to include both tabular and proportionally-spaced figures, numerators and denominators for fractions, as well as superior and inferior figures for academic setting. Additional OpenType features (such as contextual alternates or discretionary ligatures), are more powerfully noticed in display sizes, and in some cases can even be distracting in text.

2. Hinting

The display of text on screen, particularly on computers running a version of the Windows operating system, may be fine-tuned and improved with the help of size-specific instructions inside of the font file. These instructions are commonly referred to as “hints.” A TrueType font (or a TrueType-flavored OpenType font), is capable of including hinting. However, not every font manufacturer goes to the effort of optimizing the onscreen appearance of its fonts for Windows—even those fonts specially created for use in text sizes.

Prensa in three different rendering environments

All of the text in the above image is shown in the same font: Prensa, set at 18 pixels. The lowest row shows this at actual size in three different onscreen rendering environments. In the enlargements, the top row shows a close-up of rendering in Safari on MacOS X, which ignores the hinting data in fonts. The second row shows rendering in Internet Explorer/WindowsXP (Grayscale only, for this sample). The third row is from a ClearType environment—in this case, from Firefox on Windows7. Prensa is a typeface designed by Cyrus Highsmith at the Font Bureau; the Web font is served by the Webtype service.

Recommended Typefaces For Readability

Aside from the typefaces already mentioned in this article and its images, here is a small selection of faces that I personally enjoy at the moment. Even though lists of “favorite” typefaces are about as useful as lists of favorite songs or favorite colors, I am happy to pass my subjective recommendations along. No doubt that as new projects arise, my list of favorites is likely to change, too. I do think that these typefaces serve as great starting places. Some are also just from cool friends whose work I dig. Alongside each selection, I mention whether this choice is currently available for print only, or if there is a Web font version, as well. Don’t forget: the typefaces that you pick in the end should depend on your projects, their audience, and the content at hand.

Small sample of the Arnhem typeface

Arnhem is a no-nonsense high-contrast oldstyle-serif face. It is a contemporary classic for newspaper and book setting, designed by Fred Smeijers and distributed via OurType. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Benton Sans typeface

Benton Sans is a Tobias Frere-Jones performance of Morris Fuller Benton’s News Gothic genre. Designed for Font Bureau, it is not only a great typeface for small print in newspapers, but one of the best-rendering text faces for the Web as well. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Ibis typeface

Ibis is another Font Bureau typeface, designed by Cyrus Highsmith. This square serif family is also no stranger to cross-media text-setting. Ibis works just as well whether you use it in print or on screen. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Ingeborg typeface

Ingeborg is modern serif family from the Viennese type and lettering powerhouse, the Typejockeys. Like any proper family should, Ingeborg has optically-sized variants for text and display settings. The display versions of the typeface can get pretty far out, too! Designer Michael Hochleitner named this typeface after his mother. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Ludwig typeface

Fred Smeijer’s work in contempory type design is so significant that he gets two shout-outs in my list. His Ludwig type family takes a nod from 19th century grotesques, but he does not try to sanitize their quirky forms, as so many type designers had tried to do before him. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Malabar typeface

This is one of the typefaces that I’ve designed. I’m somewhat partial to Malabar. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the FF Scala Sans typeface

Martin Majoor’s FF Scala Sans has been my top go-to typeface for almost 15 years. It mixes well with the serif FF Scala type, but it’s also really great on its own. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the URW Grotesk typeface

Of all the typefaces designed by Hermann Zapf over his long career, URW Grotesk is clearly the best. Unfortunately, it has been a little overlooked. URW Grotesk is a geometric sans, with a humanist twist that brings much more life into the letters than this genre usually allows for. Plus, the family is super big. Available for print and Web.

Small sample of the Weiß-Antiqua Typeface

Are you a DIY-fan? Do you like to print with letter press, whether you set your own type by hand, or have polymer plates made? Then check out the typefaces of Emil Rudolf Weiß! His Weiß-Antiqua is an eternal classic. Weiß may have passed away 70 years ago, but his work is still relevant. He was German, so his last name is sort of pronounced like Vice, as in Miami Vice. Available for print and Web.

Conclusion

There are many factors that play a role in typeface selection. Aside from just browsing through the available fonts that they have, or fonts that could be newly licensed for a project, designers regularly spend considerable effort determining the right typeface to complement a project’s content, or the message at hand. Understanding some of the thoughts that go into the making of text typeface—including how a typeface’s letters are fitted to each other to determine a text’s default underlying rhythm—helps lead to better informed decisions regarding what types are indeed apt, and which faces are better suited for other sorts of jobs. After having read this article, I hope you feel more comfortable with this kind of decision making, and that you will know what to look for with a font in the future.

Other Resources

For more information about choosing the right text fonts, you may be interested in the following books and Web resources:

1. Websites

2. Books

Note: A big thank you to our fabulous Typography editor, Alexander Charchar, for preparing this article.

(jvb) (il)

© Dan Reynolds for Smashing Magazine, 2012.

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A review by James Puckett

Jim Williams is a senior lecturer at Staffordshire University, where he compiled an excellent series of student handouts about typography. In 2010 the handouts were featured on Creative Review’s blog which generated interest from publishers. The handouts have now been published in book form as Type Matters. Williams is well qualified to write this title; he has worked as a typographer and designer since 1982 and has taught design at Staffordshire University for eighteen years.

Type Matters is printed in black and red on a substantial cream stock, and bound in a faux leather cover to resemble a field notebook. It would fit in fine at a digital design studio or a letterpress shop. This format lends itself to gift-giving when you need a present for an editor who thrives on the AP or Chicago style manuals.

Type Matters is unpretentious, unassuming, and reductive. Explanations rely heavily on elegant typographic diagrams that dominate most pages. Quotes from older typesetting manuals provide the text for the diagrams, set in a variety of classic types. Combined with the black and red printing and cream paper the book takes on the feel of a vintage type specimen. Readers are expected to study the diagrams, and some concepts, like x-height, are only introduced via a diagram. Once the book has been read it will make a great reference tool for students and designers alike, especially those less inclined to read lengthier, more comprehensive texts.

Occasionally Type Matters is too brief. Superfamilies, typefaces having a serif and sans, are left out of the explanation of families. Figures are defined only as being oldstyle or lining; tabular and proportional figures are not directly explained. En dashes are shown as roughly the width of the letter n, with the accurate definition of half of an em appearing only later in the glossary. Williams refers to the typefaces he uses by the names of the fonts, rather than the name of design. Bitstream knockoff fonts are often used, and called by their Bitstream names. This may lead readers to believe that Univers is called Zurich, Helvetica is Swiss 921, and Stempel Garamond is Original Garamond.

The book covers some topics that are either odd or just obscure; for example, “Cogent alignment” — ragged type with long lines justified, a habit of the British firm Cogent Elliot in the 1980s. Also shown is letterspacing lowercase within a block of text to create emphasis, described as a technique from medieval printing. Neither of these is described as typical or contemporary, but it seems odd to bring them up at all. On the other hand, Type Matters might be one of the only introductory text that explains how slight horizontal scaling of text can be employed to improve justification, a topic rarely covered in books that dismiss any scaling as a “type crime”.

Accompanying the main text is a list of proofreaders’ marks, a glossary, and a list of more books on typography. These little appendices add some value both for students and as a desk reference for working designers.

Type Matters is a solid addition to the field of introductory texts on the subject of typography. It is not perfect, but the innovative presentation and short text makes it a great option for design students. And it may be the best gift around for friends and coworkers in need of a quick education in typography.

Type Matters!
ISBN 978-1-8589-4567-5
Jim Williams
Merrell

James studied graphic design at the Corcoran College of Art and Design in Washington, DC. He developed a love of typography at the Corcoran and wrote a thesis about the development of versatile typefaces as branding devices. After graduating with honors James decided to pursue type design full-time. In 2009 he started Dunwich Type Founders in New York City.



Sponsored by H&FJ.

Type Matters

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A recent Thursday at 10:23 a.m.: In the basement of Arion Press, where they still print books the old-fashioned way, Lewis Mitchell slid open a box of parts used to change the font size on the Monotype casting machines he has maintained for 62 years.

“I thoroughly enjoy the sound of the machines turning, and seeing the type come out is a joy,” Mitchell said.

He can tell by the sound of the moving springs and levers if something is awry with his machines — a skill he said all good technicians should have. Four different owners have run the business since Mitchell walked through the doors at age 18, and he has had several opportunities to leave, including a scholarship to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that he declined. Now 80, Mitchell can’t imagine retiring from the job he loves so much.

When Mitchell started making this kind of type, it was really the only way to print things, and now he doesn’t know how many books he’s helped print over the decades. There were once type-casting operations in most major U.S. cities, but now the practice is almost extinct. There are only two companies left in the world that cast type for printing presses, and Arion is by far the largest.

Mitchell has four grown children and nine grandchildren, but he calls the 20 type-casting machines his “babies.” “I treat them with kindness. I don’t use a hammer on them or an oversized screwdriver.” The first machine, which started the company during 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition, is still its best machine — proof that Mitchell’s methods work. “My dad taught me from square one if you going to do something, you’re going to do it right or you don’t do it.”

By San Francisco Chronicle.

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